VICTORIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
This book is purchased from
The Schofield Fund
given in memory of
William Henry Schofield
Victoria College, B.A. 1889
Harvard University, Ph. D. 1895
Professor of Comparative Literature
Harvard University, 1906-20.
Harvard Exchange P rofessor at
University of Berlin, 1907
Lecturer at the Sorbonne and
University of Copenhagen, 1910.
Harvard Exchange Professor at
Western Colleges, 1918.
<6tra Merits. No. xxxvni.
13ERLIN: ASHER & CO., 13, UNTER DEN LINDEN.
NE\V YORK: Q SCRIBNElt & CO.; LEYPOLDT & HOLT.
PHILADELPHIA : J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.
ENGLISH CHARLEMAGNE ROMANCES
Jftrninkas jjis Sone % conqueribe |Ume
FROM THE UNIQUE MS. OF THE LATE SIR THOMAS PHILLIPPS,
EM1L HAUSKNECHT, Pu. D.
PUBLISHED FOR THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY
BY KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & Co.,
PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING-CRO3S ROAD, W.C.
[Reprinted 1891, 1S9S.]
UlCUAHD CLAV <t bU>S, LIMITKl), LONDON <Ji JiUNOAY.
POPULARITY OF THE CARLO VINGIAN ROMANCES . . V
POPULARITY OF THE FERUMBRAS POEM vi
THE PROVENCAL FERABRAS ... ... ix
THE FIERABRAS POEM AN ENLARGED AND RECAST
PORTION OF THE OLD BALAN ROMANCE ... ... xl
THE POEM OF THE DESTRUCTION DE ROME xiii
MSS. OF THE FRENCH FIERABRAS XV
THE ENGLISH SIR FERUMBRAS, ITS SOURCE, ETC. ... Xvi
THE POEM OF THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON, ITS SOURCES,
ITS DIFFERENCES FROM THE ORIGINAL BALAN
ROMANCE AND FROM THE ASHMOLEAN FERUMBRAS
DIALECT OF THE SOWDAN
METRE AND RHYMES OF THE SOWDAN xl
DATE AND AUTHOR OF THE SOWDAN ... ... ... xlv
MS. OF THE SOWDAN xlvil
ROXBURGHE CLUB EDITION OF THE SOWDAN . xlviii
THE HANOVER MS. OF THE FRENCH FIERABRAS COM-
PARED WITH THE SOWDAN ... ... ... xlix
THE HANOVER VERSION COMPARED WITH SIR FERUM-
BRAS ... Hi
SKETCH OF THE STORY ... liv
THE ROMAUNCE OF THE SOWDQNE OF BABYLONE
AND OF FERUMBRAS HIS SONE WHO CON-
QUEREDE ROME ... ... 1
GLOSSARIAL INDEX ... 133
INDEX OF NAMES . HI
THE exploits of Charles the Great, who by his achievements as
conqueror and legislator, as reformer of learning and missionary, so
deeply changed the face of Western Europe, who during a reign of
nearly half a century maintained, by his armies, the authority of his
powerful sceptre, from the southern countries of Spain and Italy to
the more northern regions of Denmark, Poland, and Hungary, must
have made a profound and unalterable impression in the minds of his
contemporaries, so that for centuries afterwards they continued to
live in the memory of the people. Evidence of this high pitch of
popularity is given by the numerous chansons de geste or romances,
which celebrate the deeds, or are connected with the name, of the
great and valiant champion of Christendom.
It is true that the sublime figure of Charlemagne, who with his
imaginary twelve peers perpetually warred against all heathenish or
Saracen people, in the romances of a later period, has been consider-
ably divested of that nimbus of majestic grandeur, which the com-
posers of the earlier poems take pains to diffuse around him.
Whereas, in the latter, the person of the Emperor appears adorned
with high corporeal, intellectual, and warlike gifts, and possessed of
all royal qualities ; the former show us the splendour of Royalty
tarnished and debased, and the power of the feodal vassals enlarged
to the prejudice of the royal authority. Roland, in speaking of
Charlemagne, says, in the Chanson de Roland, 1. 376 :
" Jamais n'iert hum qui encuntre lui vaillet,"
and again the same Roland says of the Emperor, in Guy de Bour-
goyne, 1. 1061 :
" Laissomes ce viellart qui tous est assotez."
CHARL. ROM. V.
VI POPULARITY OF THE CARLOVINGIAN ROMANCES.
This glorification of the great Christian hero took its rise in
France, but soon spread into the neighbouring countries, and before
long Charlemagne was celebrated in song by almost all European
nations. Indeed, there are translations, reproductions, compilations
of French Charlemagne romances to be met with in Italy, Spain, and
Portugal, as well as in Scandinavia and Iceland. Even in Hungary
and Eussia these chansons of the Charlemagne cycle seem to have
been known. 1
A full account of almost all Charlemagne romances will be found
in Gaston Paris's exhaustive work of the Histoire poetigue de
Charlemagne (Paris, 1865), and in Leon Gautier's Epopees fra?icaises
_0f all the Charlemagne romances, that of Fierabras or Ferumbras
lias certainly obtained the highest degree of popularity, as is shown
by the numerous versions and reproductions of this romance, from the
13th century down to the present daj.
When the art of printing first became general, the first romance
that was printed was a prose version of Fierabras ; and when the
study of medieval metrical romances was revived in this century, the
Fierabras poem was the first to be re-edited. 2
The balm of Fierabras especially seems to have been celebrated
for its immediately curing any wound ; we find it referred to and
minutely described in Florian's Don Quichotte, I. chap. 10. The
scene of Fierabras challenging to a combat the twelve peers of France,
and of his vaunting offer to fight at once with six (or twelve)
of them, 3 must also have been pretty familiar to French readers, as
the name of Fierabras is met with in the sense of a simple common
noun, signifying "a bragging bully or swaggering hector." 4
Rabelais 5 also alludes to Fierabras, thinking him renowned
enough as to figure in the pedigree of Pantragruel.
In 1833, on a tour made through the Pyrenees, M. Jomard wit-
1 Histoire Poet., p. 133-4.
2 Gautier, Epopees, ii. 308.
3 Cf. the French Fierabras, 1. 84; Sir Ferumbras, 1. 102; Sowdone,
4 Thus in Scarron, Gigant, iii.
5 Pantagruel, ii. chap. 1.
THE ' FIERABBAS ' ROMANCE IN THE NETHERLANDS. vil
nessed a kind of historical drama, represented by villagers, in which
Fierabras and Balan were the principal characters. 1
That in our own days, the tradition of Fierabras continues to live,
is evident from the fact, that copies of the Fierabras story, in the
edition of the Bibliotheque Bleue, stinjcirculate amongst the country
people of France. 2 There is even an illustrated edition, published in
1861, the pictures of which have been executed by no less an artist
than Gustave Dore. And like Oberon, that other mediaeval hero of
popular celebrity, 3 Fierabras has become the subject of a musical
composition. There is an Opera Fierabras composed by Franz
Schubert (words by Joseph Kupelwieser) in 1823, the overture of
which has been arranged for the piano in 1827, by Carl Czerny. 4
The different versions and the popularity of the present romance
in France, Italy, Spain, and Germany, having been treated in the
Introduction to Sir Ferumbras, we need not repeat it again here. 5
As to the popularity of the Fierabras romance in the Netherlands,
the following passage from Hoffmann, Horcn Belyicve (Vratislaviae,
1830), I. 50, may be quoted here 6 :
"Quam notae Belgis, sec. xiii. et xiv., variae variarum nationum
fabulae fuerint, quae ex Gallia septemtrionali, ubi originem ceperunt,
translatae sunt, panca haec testimonia demonstrabunt : ... .in
exordio Sidraci : 7
' Dickent hebbic de gone ghescouden,
die hem an boeken houden
daer si clene oerbare in leren,
also sijn jeesten van heeren,
van Paerthenopeuse, van Amidase,
van Troijen ende van Fierabrase,
ende van menighen boeken, die men mint
ende daer men litel oerbaren in vint,
1 See the most interesting account of this piece and its curious manner of
representation in Histoire Litteraire de la France, xvii. 720-21.
2 Gautier, Epopees, ii. p. 308 ; and Histoire Poetique, p. 99.
3 See Huon de Bourdeaux, edd. Guessard and Grandmaison, p. xxxviii.
4 See G. Nottebohm, Thematisches Verzeichniss dcr im Drucit, e-schiene-
ncn Werke von Franz Schubert. Wien, 1874. Op. 76.
5 Of. besides, Histoire Poetique, pp. 97, 143, 155, 214, 251 ; Epopees
fi'an$aises,\\. pp. 307-9 ; and the Preface of the French edition of Fierabras.
6 See also Mone, Uebersiekt der niederldmUschen Volksliteratur iiltere"
Zcit. Tubingen, 1836. p. 56.
7 Cf. Warton, Hist, of Eng. Poetry, 1824, vol. i. pp. 147-8.
viii THE 'FIERABRAS ROMANCE IN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.
ende dat als leghene es ende mere,
ende anders en hebben ghene lere,
danne vechten ende vroweu minnen
ende lant ende steden winnen '
" Nec rarius tanguntur fabulse de Carolo Magno, Speculum His-
toriale, IV. 1. xxix (cf. Bilderdijk, Verscheidenli, I. D. bl. 161-2) :
' Carel es menichwaerf beloghen
in groten boerden ende in hoghen,
alse boerders doen ende oec dwase,
diene beloghen van Fierabrase,
dat nie ghesciede noch en was ....
die scone walsce valsce poeten,
die mer rimeu dan si weten,
belieghen groten Caerle vele
in sconen worden ende bispele
van Fierdbrase van Alisandre,
van Pont Mautrible ende andre,
dat algader niet en was . . . ."*
That the Fierdbras romance must have been well known and
highly popular in England and Scotland, may be gathered from the
numerous references to this poem in various Middle English works.
Thus the whole subject of the Flerabras romance is found in the
following passage, taken from Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, 3, 435 ss.,
where the King is described as relating to his followers :
" Romanys off worthi Ferambrace,
That worthily our-commyn was
Throw the rycht douchty Olywer ;
And how the duz Peris wer
Assegyt in till Egrymor,
Quhar King Lawyne lay thaim befor
With may thowsandis then I can say,
And bot elewyn within war thai,
And a woman ; and wa sa stad,
That thai na mete thar within had,
Bot as thai fra thair fayis wan.
Y heyte, sua contenyt thai thaim than ;
That thai the tour held manlily,
Till that Rychard off Normandy,
Magre his fayis, warnyt the king,
That wes joyfull off this tithing :
For he wend, thai had all bene slayne,
Tharfor he turnyt in hy agayne,
And wan Mantrybill and passit Flagot ;
And syne Lawyne and all his flot
Dispitusly discumfyt he :
And deliueryt his men all fre,
And wan the naylis, and the sjter,
And the croune that Ihesu couth ber ;
ALLUSIONS TO ' FIEHABRAS ' IN ENGLISH WORKS. IX
And off the croice a gret party
He wan throw his chewalry." '
In his poem of Ware the Haivlt, Skelton (ed. Dyce, I. 162) cites
Syr Pherumbras as a great tyrant. He also refers to him in one of
his poems against Garnesche, whom he addresses with the following
"Ye fowle, fers and felle, as Syr Ferumbras the fifreke."
The story of the combat between Oliver and Ferumbras is alluded
to by Lyndsay, in his Historie of ane Nobil and Wail^eand Squyer,
William Mddrum, ed. Hall, 11. 1313-16 :
" Roland with Brandwell, his bricht brand,
Faucht never better, hand for hand,
Nor Gawin aganis Golibras,
Nor Olyver with Pharambras"
The tale of the fortified bridge of Mauntrible seems also to have
been very well known in England and Scotland. In the Complaint
of Scotland, ed. Murray, p. 63, we find the Tail of the Brig of the
Mantrible mentioned among other famous romances. In his lampoon
on Garnesche, Skelton describes his adversary as being more deformed
and uglier than
" Of Mantryble the bryge Malchus 2 the murryon."
As has already been mentioned, amongst all the Charlemagne
romances the (originally French) romance of Fierabras is remarkable
as_being one of the first that was rescued from the dust of libraries ;
and it is worthy of note, in connection with it, that the first printed
version was not a French, but a Provencal one, which was published
not in France, the birth-place of the romance, but in Germany.
The manuscript of this Prove^al version having been discovered
by Lachmann in the Library of Prince Ludwig von Oettingen-
1 It is worthy of notice that the account of the Fierabras romance as
given by Barbour, may be considered, on the whole, as identical with the sub-
ject of the French Fierabras or the English Syr Ferumbras, but not with the
Sorcdan, as there is no mention made of the combat before Rome, nor any
trace of what makes up the first part of the Soivdan. But the spelling Lawyn
for Balan agrees with the spelling of the same name in the Sowdan. As to
the relics mentioned in the passage above, they differ from all other versions.
3 In the Sowdan the Bridge ward is called Alagolofre ; cf. Index of Names.
X THE 'PROVENyAL FERABRAS.'
Wallerstein, 1 somewhere about the year 1820, the poem was pub-
lished in 1829 by Immanuel Bekker. 2
Raynouard, who drew attention to this edition of the poem in the
Journal des Savants, March 1831, supposed this Provensal version
to be the original.
Soon after Fauriel discovered at Paris two MSS. of the romance
in French, and a third French MS. was found in London, 3 by Fr.
Michel, in 1838.
In 1852 Fauriel gave an account of the poem in the Histoire
Litteraire de la France, par les religieux benedictins de congregation
de Saint-Maur continues par des membres de I'lnstitut, vol.
xxii. p. 196 et scq., where he also investigated the question of the
originality of the two versions, without arriving at a linal solution ;
as from the comparison of the French and the Provencal version, no
conclusion as to the original could be drawn in favour of either of
the two poems. 4
As early as 1829 TJhland and Diez had expressed their opinion,
that in all probability the Prove^al poem was to be looked upon as
a reproduction of some French source; 5 and in 1839 Edelestand du
Meril, in France, had pointed out the French poem as the original
of the Prove^al version ; 6 Guessard in his lectures at the Ecole des
Chartes, at Paris, had also defended the same opinion; when in
1860, the editors of the French Fierabras 7 finally and irrefutably
proved the impossibility of considering the Provei^al poem as
anything but a translation of a French original.
1 This MS. consisting of 71 parchment leaves in 4to, with coloured initials
at the beginning of each rhyme-strophe, had formerly been in the possession
" Majoris Monasterii congregationis Sancti Mauri," at Paris. Having passed
through many hands during the French Kevolutiou, it finally came to the
Library of Wallerstein.
2 Der Roman von Ferabras, provenzalisch. Berlin, 1829.
* British Museum, MS. Reg. 15. E. vi.
4 Cf. also the Preface of the French Fierabras, p. iv.
5 See Leben nnd Werke der Troubadours, by Friedrich Diez, Zwickau,
1829, p. 613 note, and Berliner Jahrbiicher fur wissenschaftliche Xritik, 1831.
6 In a footnote to his Histoire de la Poesie scandinave, p. 183, where he
says : " Le roman de Ferabras, public a Berlin par M. Bekker, est . . . evi-
demment traduit du fran9ais, et en a conserve trop de formes et d'expressions
pour avoir la moindre valeur grammaticale."
7 Fierabras chanson de geste, edd. Krocber and Servois, in the collection
of the Ancient Poctes de la France.
THE OLD 'BALAN' ROMANCE. xi
In 1865, Gastoii Paris, in his Poetical History of Charlemagne,
pointed out that what we have now of the Fierabras romance must
be looked upon as a very different version from the old original
Fierabras (or Balan) romance, the former being indeed only a por-
tion, considerably amplified and in its arrangement modified, of the
old poem, the first portion of which has -been lost altogether. Gaston
Paris had been led to this supposition by the rather abrupt opening
of the Fierabras, which at once introduces the reader in mcdias res,
and by the numerous passages of the Fierabras, which contain allu-
sions and references to preceding events; several of which, being
obscure and inexplicable from the context of the Fierabras itself,
can only be explained by assuming the existence of an earlier poem.
The main subject of the old Balan or Fierabras romance may be
given as follows : " The Saracens having invaded Rome and killed
the Pope, Charlemagne sends, from France, Guy of Burgundy and
Richard of Normandy to the rescue of the city, and follows himself
with his main army. After a fierce combat between Oliver and
Ferumbras, the city is delivered from the Saracens, and a new Pope
1 For a more detailed analysis, see Histolre Poet., p. 251, and cf. the
account given of the old Fierabras or Balan romance by Philippe Mousket,
ed. Reiffenberg, Bruxelles, vol. I. v. 11. 4664 4716, which runs as follows-*
4664 Puis fu Roume par force prise
et la gent destruite et ocise
et li apostoile ocis
Castiaus-Mireors ars et pris
4668 et toute la cite bruie.
li dus Garins et sa mesnie
entrerent en Castiel-Croisant,
quar Sarrasin, Turc et Persant
4672 amenerent trop grant compagne
et devers Surie et d'Espagne ;
si furent crestien dolant,
et manderent tot maintenant
4676 soucours al bon roi Charlemainne
ki sa fieste en France demainne,
et li rois en cele besogne
lor tramist Guion de Bourgogue,
4680 ki nouviaus chevaliers estoit
et des jovenes enfans avoit
devant ou la couronne prise.
et soucourureut sans faiutisc
xii THE FRENCH ' FIERABRA8.'
Of all the events related in the old Dalan romance, there is but
one which is contained in the Fierabras poem, viz. the combat be-
tween Oliver and Ferumbras, and even this has been greatly modified
in consequence of the composer's transferring the scene of action from
Italy to Spain. All the other events related in the Fierabras, the
love of Floripas and Guy, the capture of the twelve peers, their
being besieged in the castle of Agremor, and their deliverance by
Charlemagne, and the ultimate wedding of Floripas and Guy are
altogether wanting in the original Fierabras [Balan] romance.
Therefore Gaston Paris was right in saying that the Fierabras
poem contained only the second part of the earlier poem, the first
part of which had not come down to us.
Now it seemed as though this view, which had been clearly
4684 lor bon roi en la tiere estrange
u il n'orent ni lin ni lange.
en France estoient revenu
et soujourne et bien p6u,
4688 mais a eel soucours le tramist
li rois, ki moult s'entremist,
et si tramist de Normendie
Bicart a la ciere bardie,
4692 si reprirent li Mireour :
et dus Garins vint a 1'estour,
ki tint Pavie en quite
s'ot bien Castil-Croisant garde,
4G96 et Karles ot sa gent mandee,
si vinrent de mainte contree,
quar il lor faisoit tant de biens,
qu 'a ses amis ne faloit riens.
4700 si trest vers Rome li bons rois
et fist as paiens moult d'anois.
dont se combati Oliviers
a Fierabras ki tant fu fiers ;
4704 d'armes 1'outra, si reconquist
les .ii. barius qu'a Rome prist,
si les gieta enmi le Toirre
por 9ou que plus n'en peust bcivre;
4708 quar c'est bausmes ki f u remes
dont Ihesu Cris f u embausmes.
puis furent mort tot li paien
et mis en Roume crestiien,
4712 si ot autre apostoile fait
et Karles s'en revint bait,
si gratia Dieu et St. Piere,
que recouvree ot sa kaiere,
471G soujourner vint dont a Parise . . .
THE * DESTRUCTION DE ROME. Xlll
demonstrated and generally adopted, would have to undergo a
thorough modification on the discovery of a new Fierabras Manu-
script in Hanover. Professor Groeber, having been informed of the
existence of that MS. by Professor Tobler, published from it, in 1873,
the poem of the Destruction de Home, 1 which in that MS. precedes
the Fierabras romance. 2 In his Address to the Assembly of German
Philologists at Leipzig, 8 the same scholar attempted to show that
this poem represented the first part of the earlier Bdlan romance.
This supposition, however, can only be accepted with reserve,
and needs a great modification, as by no means all the references to
previous events contained in the Fierabras receive explanation in
the Destruction, although all such previous events must have been
narrated in the original Balan. Moreover, one of these allusions
in the Fierabras is in direct contradiction to the contents of the
Thus 11. 2237 et seq. of the Fierabras:*
u .i. chevalier de France ai lontans ename :
Guis a nom de Borgoigne, moult i a bel arme" ;
Parens est Karlemaine et Reliant 1'adure.
Des que je fui a Romme, m'a tout mou cuer emble,
Quant 1'amirans mes peres fist gaster la cite",
Lncafer de Baudas abati ens ou pre,
Et lui et le ceval, d'unfort espiel quarre,"
where Floripas declares that she has seen Guy before Rome when
defeating Lukafer, widely differ from the account given in 11. 1355
et seq. of the Destruction, where Guy does not arrive at Rome until
after the departure of Laban's army to Spain.
In the Destruction no clue is given which would enable us to
explain why Charles should be constantly applying to Richard in
the Fierabras (11. 112 et seq.) for information about Fierabras, or why
Richard, in particular, should know more about Fierabras than any
one else. There is no mention in the Destruction of Richard chasing
1 Romania, ii. 1873, pp. 1 48.
2 Cf.JakrbucJtfiir romanische und englische SpracJie und Literatur, edd.
Lemcke, vol. xiii. p. 111.
3 Printed in Verhandlnngen der 28sten Versammlnng deutscher Philologen
und Sclinlmanner in Leipzig . Leipzig, 1873, p. 209 et seq.
4 Corresponding to 11. 1410 et seq. of the Ashmole Ferumbrtu.
XIV THE ' DESTRUCTION ' COMPARED WITH THE ' BALAN ' ROMANCE.
the Emir before him in the plain of Home, to which event 11. 3708-9
of the Fierabras l clearly refer.
" Richars de Normendie au courage adure,
Qui cacha 1'amirant devant Romme ens el pre."
The allusion contained in 1. 26 14, 2
. . . . " Richart de Normendie,
Gil qui m'ocist Corsuble et mon oncle Mautrie,"
where Richard is said to have slain Corsuble and Mautrie, the uncle
of Floripas, is not cleared up by the Destruction, as in the three
passages, where Eichard is mentioned there (11. 246, 288, 541), he
does not play an active part at all, whereas from Mousket's analysis
of the original Fiercibras [Balan] romance, we know how important
a part Guy and Eichard played in the old poem. 3 There Eichard
and Guy being sent off by Charlemagne as a first succour to the
oppressed Eomans, succeeded in delivering Chateau-Miroir, which
had been seized by the Saracens. The story of the combat around
Chateau-Miroir, as related in the Destruction, 11. 593 ss., is thoroughly
different, 4 as besides other variations, there is neither Eichard nor
Guy concerned in it.
Therefore, as the contents of the Destruction are not identical
with Mousket's analysis of the old Balan romance, and as several
passages alluding to events previously described are left unexplained
in the Destruction ; and as there is even an instance of the Destruction
being in contradiction to the Fierabras, the poem of the Destruction
de Rome cannot be said to be identical with the first part of the
Balan romance. 5
1 Cf. Sir Ferum.br as, 11. 8192-3.
2 Cf. also 1. 2784 and Sir Ferumbras, 11. 1860 and 2059.
3 See above, p. xi, footnote, and Histoire Poetique, p. 261.
4 Cf. Groeber, Verhandlnngen, pp. 217-18.
5 The following differences between the Destruction and the narration of
Philippe Mousket are worthy of note :
(i) the combat around Chateau-Miroir is described in a different manner
in the two poems.
(ii) the scene of action, which at the end of the Destruction is transferred
to Spain, remains, according to Philippe Mousket, in the neighbourhood of
Rome for the whole time.
(iii) Guy of Burgundy and Richard of Normandy play a most important
active part before Rome, according to Ph. Mousket, whereas in the Destruction
this is not the case.
Now, as to the last two items, they must have been in the original such as
THE MSS. OF THE FRENCH EDITION". XV
The Provei^al version and the Destruction are each printed from
unique MSS., the latter from the Hanover MS., the former from the
Wallorstein MS. Of the French Fierabras there are seven MSS.
known to exist.
a the MS. of the Bibliotheque Rationale at Paris, Supplem.
frun^., No. 180, which has been followed throughout by the editors
of the French Fierabras, who in cases of evident errors or lacuna? of
this MS., consulted the three following MSS. :
b = the MS. of the Biblioth. Rationale, Lancelot, 7566 3 ' 3 .
c = the MS. of the British Museum, MS. Keg. 15. E. vi. 1
d = the MS. of the Vatican Library, Regina 1616.
D = the MS. in possession of M. Ambroise-Firmin Didot, a small
fragment of which has been printed by Gautier, Epopees fr. ii. 307.
E == the Escorial MS., a description of which, together with the
variations, has been given by Knust, in the Jalirbucli fur romanische
und englische Sprache und Literatur, vol. ix. p. 43 et seq.
H = the Hanover MS., which also contains the Destruction de
Rome. It has been described by Professor Groeber in the Jakrbuch,
xiii. p. 111.
they are related \>y Ph. Mousket. For only thus some obscure passages of
Fierabras, of which even the Destruction affords no explanation, are cleared
up. Thus, Fierabras, 1. 104!),
" Pros fu du far de Rome, ses a dedens jetes "
which is in contradiction to the Destruction, is explained by 11. 4705-6 of
Mousket's account (see above). Only Mousket relates that Floripas has seen
Guy before Rome (Fierabras, 1. 2240 ; Ashmole Ferunibras, 1. 1413), and that
Richard took part at the combat there. Therefore the account as given by
Ph. Mousket, agreeing with what must have been the contents of the old
original, is based on a version older than the Destruction, which exhibits
These differences between Mousket and the Destruction, as well as the fact
that several references to preceding events contained in Fierabras remain un-
explained by the Destruction, were some of the reasons which led me in my
Dissertation, pp. 41 40, to consider the Destruction as a poem written by
another author than that o/ the Fierabras. In order to clear up the allusions
to preceding events contained in the Fierabras, the very beginning of which
necessarily requires some explanatory account a circumstance which also
gave rise to the ' episode ' of the Provencal version the Destruction was
composed as a kind of Introduction to the Fierabras, whereby it happened
that some allusions remained unexplained.
1 For a description of this magnificent MS., see Sir Ferunibras, p. vi,
Xvi THE ENGLISH VERSIONS.
As to the English Fierabras romances, there are two versions
/ known to exist : 1 the poem of Sir Ferumbras contained in the
Ashmole MS. 33 2 and the present poem.
In the following we shall attempt to point out the differences of
these two versions, and to examine whether there is any relationship
between the English and the French poems, and if possible to identify
the original of the former.
A superficial comparison of the English poem of Sir Ferumbras
with the French romance Fierabras (edd. Krceber and Servois) will
suffice at once to show the great resemblance between the two versions.
In my Dissertation on the sources and language of the Sowdan of
Bdbylone (Berlin, 1879) I have proved (pp. 3040) that the Ash-
_ molean Ferumbras must be considered as a running poetical trans-
lation of a French original. Since Mr. Herrtage, in the Introduction
to his edition of the Ashmole MS. 33, has also pointed out the close-
ness with which the translator generally followed the original, which
he believes to belong to the same type as the Fierabras, edited by
MM. Kroeber and Servois. "The author has followed his original
closely, so far as relates to the course of events ; but at the same time
he has translated it freely, introducing several slight incidents and
modifications, which help to enliven and improve the poem. That
he has not translated his original literally, is shown by the fact that
the French version consists of only 6219 lines, or allowing for the
missing portion of the Ashmole MS., not much more than one-half
the number of lines in the latter, and that too, although he has cut
down the account of the duel between Oliver and Ferumbras from
1500 to 800 lines, by leaving out Oliver's attempts at converting the
Saracen, Charlemagne's prayers, &c."
Now, in my opinion, we ought not to lay too much stress on the
fact that the number of lines in the two versions differs, as all trans-
lators of poetical works, who wish to follow Jheir original as closely
as possible, will easily be able to render it ' literally ' as long as they
write in prose. But adopting a poetical form for their translation ,
and still pursuing their intention of a close rendering of their original,
1 Of. Warton, Hist, of Eng. Poetry, ii. 197-8.
2 Edited for the E. E. T. S. in 1879, by S. J. Herrtage, B.A.
THE ASHMOLE MS. AXD THE FRENCH POEM. XV11
they must needs be more diffuse, and the consideration of rhythm
and rhyme will compel them sometimes to abandon a quite literal
translation, and to be content with a free reproduction. This is also
the case with the author of Syr Ferumbras, who, notwithstanding
the many passages where the French text is not given 'literally,'
must be considered as a close rhymed translation of the French poem.
The only liberty which we see the English author take sometimes,
consists in contracting or amalgamating together those couplets
similaires, 1 or strophes which contain repetitions.
But not always did the author thus give up his plan of render-
ing his original closely : occasionally he has such repetitionary lines
in the same place as the French poem, as, for instance, in 11. 130 et
seq. corresponding to Fierabras, 11. 125 et seq.
The closeness and literalness of his translation is well exemplified
by his introduction in an English dress of a great many French
words which are unknown, or at least of a most rare occurrence, in
English, and which in his translation are found in the same place
and context, where the French text has them. This will be best
illustrated by juxtaposing the corresponding phrases of the two
Ashmole Ferumbras. French Fierabras.
312 Hit ys rewarded ous two be- 301 ' Nous jujon Olivier, si 1'avons
twyne J?at Olyuer schal wende esgarde Qu'il fera la bataille
and take J?e batail au paien deffae.'
330 Mercy, qua}) he to kyng Charles 333 ' As pies le roy se jete, merchi li
3G9 }>at paynede crist 377 ' dont vos Diex fu pent*?
388 Er y remuvie me of JMs place 392 ' Ains que je m'en rentiie . . .'
399 y chalenge wi}> J?e to fijt 402 ' je te voel calcngier '
457 Parfay, ansuerde erld O. 449 i Par foi, dist Oliviers . . .'
533 J>at he ne . . maden ^elde his 548 'se Roland s'i combat, ne faice
body to him creaunt recreant '
537 wi> my swerd trencliaunt 553 ' . . . a m'espee trencant '
538 Sarsyns, said erld 0. 554 Sarrazins, dist li quans . . .
551 long man \nfourclmre 579 II ot Venfourceure grant
558 a ful gret pite, etc. 586 j'ai de toi grant pite, etc.
1 Of. Gautier, Epopees Francaises, i. 221. " Rien n'est plus frequent, dans
la Chanson de Roland et dans nos poemes les plus anciens, que la repetition
double, triple et meme quelquefois quadruple, de certains couplets. Cette
repetition n'a pas lieu dans les memes termes, ni surtout avec les memes rimes.
Tout au contraire, la meme idee est reproduite en vers differents, munis
d'assonauces ou de rimes differentes."
XV111 THE ASIIMOLE MS. OFTEN TRANSLATES THE FRENCH POEM.
751 haue mercy of me, iatttail
781 to remur'ie ]>e of f>is place
817 lie was cticombt-cd with B\
922 J?ey went forth on & pendant
947 wan hure spere gunne tofaile
984 At avalyng of an hulle
1008. 1012 to rescourre J>e barons
1016 wel longe hadde J?is chas ylest
1058 and of>re reliques riche ynow
vvherof y havejtlentee
1227 for to wyte wat J>ay be and hure
1316 By an old forsake ^eate of j?e
1773 sittynge on a grene erber
1974 Florippe his do^tre )?e cortoyse
in chain bre j?ar she was In }?e
paleys yhurde muse and Jjyder
J?an she gas
2007 JK>W ert asotid
2538 a gret repref it were
3665 brydel and paytrel and al J>e
gere wif> fyn gold yharneyssed
3672 and )?e king him gan ascrie
3791 a gret did j?ay made Jjere
4541 with an hard crestid serpentis
5753 on }mn ston a cracchede and in
a spatte in dispit of god, etc.
1494-5 nierd li a cri6 : Gentix
horn . .
1515 ja par moi n'i series . . TIMI-HC*
1552 Mais do F. est . . . enrombres
1696 Gil s'entornent fuiant le pen-
dant d'un laris
1712 puant les lances lorfalent
1734 A Vavaler d'un tertre
1757 . . les barons rescons . .
1764 Moult fu grans cele cltace
1806 Et les dignes reliques dont il i
2067 Lor coumne et lor estre enquerre
2144 Par une gaste porte de viel ante-
2562 . . siet sous eel arbre rame.
2712 Floripas la courtoise a le noi*
Puis issi de la cambre, . . .
Entresi c'au palais . .
2733 . . vous voi assote.
3136 . . il nous est reprouvk
4117 Li estrier furent d'or, rices fu li
4126 ... si s'est haut escrics.
4236 . . demainent grant dolour
4832 vestu ot la pel d'un dur serpent
5910 en desplt de Ihesu, ens es fons
Besides these undoubted examples of translation, we must bear
in mind that there occur some variations of readings, where, indeed,
the author of Syr Ferumbras seems to have introduced slight inci-
dents and modifications. But examining them more closely, we shall
soon become aware that many of them also point to a French original,
which we may sometimes identify by comparing these variations with
the readings of those French MSS. that are already printed. Thus,
the words "barto ys stede ban tyeb he," 1. 91, render exactly a line
of the Escorial MS. 1 "son cheval aresiia a 1'abricel rose" which
is omitted in 1. 93 of F (i. e. the French Fierabras, as edited by MM.
Kroeber and Servois). 2
1 The variations of this MS. are printed in the Jahrbuch der rowan, and
cugl. fyraclwn, vol. ix. pp. 43 ss.
3 This edition, although printed, from the MS. a, may be said to represent
a group (w>) of 'four MSS., called abed (see above xv). Another group (z)
ST11 FERUMHRAS AND THE ESCORIAL MS. XIX
The following is another example of A (= the Ashmoleaii
Fc.nnnlnis) differing from F, but agreeing with E :
175 Ne lyre he no^t }>ys day til 175 ke il puisse tant vivre que cis
evene jours soit passes
2131 Adoun }?ay gunne falle, knellyng 2833 Issi agenoillierent par bones
on j?e erthe stille ... & kusse- volentez
dem ever echo ne, etc. ... Us baissent les reliques . . .
Notwithstanding these resemblances of A to E, in passages where
A differs from F, E cannot have been the source of A, as there are
many instances where E and F show the same reading, whereas A
differs from both versions.
Thus, A, 1. 340 et seq., it is Duke Eeyner who blesses his son, and
not Charles, as E and F (1. 357) have it.
The names of Arrenor, Gwychard, Gayot, and Angwyree, given
in 1. 814, differ from those which are mentioned in the corresponding
passage of E and F (11. 1548-49).
There is no mention of Kargys being slain by Oliver (A 880) to
be found in E or F (1. 1670-76).
In A 1178, Lamasour advises the Soudan not to slay the prison-
ers ; in E and F (1. 1948) the same advice is given by Bndans.
The names of LambrocJc and Colbrant (A 1616, 1618) are not
found in E and F, 2424.
A, 11. 1347-48, are wanting in E and ^(2174).
is formed by the MSS. E and D. Both groups belong to the same type ;//.
Of. Grceber, Die handschriftlichen Gestaltungen der chanson de gestt Fiura-
bras, Leipzig, 1869, p. 27, where we find the following steinma :
XX THE DIDOT AND THE HANOVER MSS.
Instead of a giant (^4 1700) we find a giantess mentioned in E
and F (1. 2483).
Instead of Roland (^4 1793) it is Naymes who speaks first in E
and F, 2570.
These few instances, the number of which might easily be in-
creased, will certainly suffice to show the impossibility of regarding
E as the original of A.
Only a short passage of the Didot MS. has been hitherto printed ; l
therefore the arguments drawn from a comparison of A with that
printed passage cannot be considered as altogether irrefutable and
final. But as the Didot MS. belongs to the same family of MSS. as
E, we may at once presume, that as E cannot be taken for the
original of A, the possibility of the Didot MS. being the source of A,
is not very strong. Besides it may be stated, that no trace of the
two additional lines (11. 19 and 20 2 ) which the Didot MS. inserts
after 1. 63 of a (or F) is found in A, although this version gives, in
11. 52 ss., a pretty close translation of the corresponding passage in F
(11. 50 et seq.). This may lead us to conclude that the Didot MS.
was not the source of A.
Comparing now A with what is known of the Hanover MS. of
Fierabras, B we find A resembling to H in the following names :
Lucafer (only once Lukefer in A 2204), Maragounde (once Mari-
gounde, A 1364), Maubyn A = Maupyn H.A 1700 and 2831,
which differ from F, equally agree with H. In the last case A agrees
also with E (although differing from F). Now as we know that H
together with D and E are derived from the same group zf we may
perhaps be justified in regarding a MS. of the latter group as the
original of A. But a more detailed comparison of A with H being
impossible at present, this argumentation wants confirmation.
The impossibility of regarding the Provengal version as the source
1 Epopee* Fran$aues, ii. 307, and Cat. reds, des Her. de la bill. d'Ambr.
F. Didot, I, 361.
Groeber, Handschriftl. Gestaltungen, p. 6.
3 Jahrbuch, xiii. p. Ill, and Zeitschrift fur romaniscTie Philologie, iv.
4 "Die Vergleichung weniger aus alien Hss. bekannteri Versen macht
gevviss, dass H mit D und J$ aus der namlichen Quellc z geflossen ist."
Jcthrbuch, xiii. 113.
THE ORIGINAL OF THE ASHMOLE MS. XXI
of the Ashmolean Ferumbras, is proved by the fact that the long
additional account, the 'episode' as Professor Groeber calls it, 1 is
wanting in A. Another proof is given by A, 11. 5763 et seq., where
A agrees with f\ but widely differs from P. 2
It seems superfluous to point out the inadmissibility of regarding
the French prose version as the original of A, the first edition of the
prose version being of a much later date than the Ashmole Ferumbras.
13ut also that version from which the prose romance has been copied
or compiled, cannot have been the original of A. For although the
phrase of A, 3888 " A skuntede as a bore" seems to contain some
resemblance of expression with the reading of the prose Fierabras
"il commen9a a escumer come s'il fust ung senglier eschaufe," which
Caxton translates "he began to scumme at the mouthe lyke a
bore enchaffed" the reading of A, 11. 1307 ss., which greatly varies
from Caxton's version (a translation of the French prose Fierabras),
renders inadmissible the supposition that the original of the French
prose version is the source of A . 3
Having thus compared the Ashmolean Ferumbras, as far as can
be done at present, with all existing versions of this romance, we
arrive at the following conclusions.
The Ashmole Ferumbras is a pretty close translation of some
French version, which we are at present unable to identify. Its
original was neither of the same family (w) as the Fierabras, edited
by MM. Krceber and Servois, nor yet of that of the Escorial version.
Nevertheless, the original of Sir Ferumbras cannot have differed much
from the common original, from which these two groups of MSS. are
derived. To this original, called y by Grreber, the MS., from which
A has been copied, appears to have been more closely related than
to the Provenal version, from which it certainly is not derived. As
the liberties which the author of Sir Ferumbras took in translating
his original, consist only in very slight modifications, we may con-
1 Handscliriftl. Gestalt., p. 10.
2 See the note to 1. 5763 of Sir Ferumbras, and cf. Fierabras, 5955.
3 The number of instances where A varies from C?s version might easily
be increased. Thus we find A 340 differing from C 52/111 and from F 357 ;
A 814 differing from C 79/3 and from F 1548; A 1616 differing from C
102/10 and from F 2424 ; A 1238 differing from C 92/5 and from F 2083 ;
A 4652 differing from C 171/26 and from ^4900, &c.
CHARL. ROM. V. C
XX11 THE SOWDONE AND SIR FERUMBRAS.
elude from his closeness of translation in general, that in those
passages of A which exhibit significant deviations from the known
French versions, these variations are not due to the composer of
the Ashmolean poem, but were already to be found in its original.
Therefore the Ashmole Ferumbras may be considered as representing
by itself the translation of an independent French MS., which per-
haps belonged, or at least was nearly related, to the type y.
I now come to the consideration of the Sowdan of_Babylone t
which the simple analysis given by Ellis, 1 shows to be an essentially
different work from the Ashmolean Ferumbras. Indeed, whilst. the
Syr Ferumbras represents only a portion (viz. the second part) of the
original Fierdbras [or Bdlan, as Gaston Paris has styled it], 2 the
Sowdan approaches the original more nearly in that it contains the
long ' introductory account '. 3 For this first part of the Sowdan (as
far as 1. 970), although it cannot be considered as identical with the
first portion of the old Balan romance, contains several facts, which,
however abridged and modified, show a great resemblance with those
which must have been the subject of the lost portion of the old
original. Whereas the Ashmolean Ferumbras is, on the whole, a
mere translation of a French original, the Soivdan must be looked
upon as a free reproduction of the English redactor, who, though
following his original as far as regards the course of events, jnodelled
the matter given there according to his own genius, and thus came
to compose an independent work of his own.
This point being fully treated in my Dissertation* I need not
again enter into discussion of it here. I only mention that the com-
poser of the Soivdan has much shortened his original, omitting all
episodes and secondary circumstances not necessarily connected with
the principal action, so that this poem does not contain half the
number of lines which his original had, 5 and that the proportion of
the diffuse Ashmolean Ferumbras and the Sowdan is over five to one. 6
1 Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances, ed. Halliwell, p. 379
2 Ilistoire Poetique. p. 251 ; cf. also Revue critique cTHistoire et de
Litterature, ii. 1869, p.. 121 et seq.
a Cf. Mr. Shelley's Paper in-Warton, Hist, of Eng. Poetry, ii. 197-8.
4 pp. 17 et seq. 5 Dissertation, p. 18.
6 Introduction to Sir Ferumbras, p. xiv.
THE 'SOWDONE AND THE 'DESTRUCTION.
The subject of the * introductory account,' or the first part of the
Sowdan, is nearly the same as that of the Destruction de Rome, dif-
fering from this poem only in the omission of a few insignificant
incidents or minor episodes, and in greater conciseness, which latter
circumstances, however, enters into the general plan of the author.
Indeed, the author of the Sowdan seems to have known the
Destruction) as wo see from a comparison of the two poems. Thus
the following instances show a great resemblance of expression of the
two versions :
37 ' With kinges xii and admyralles
77 * The Romaynes robbed us anone
75 ' to presente you '
76 'a drift of wedir us droffe to 120
110 ; An hundred thousande*
128 'To manace with the Cristene
175-76 ' Oure sheldes be not broke
nothinge, Hawberkes, spere, ner
poleyne, ner pole '
224-27 'Lukafere, Kinge of Baldas,
The countrey hade serchid and
sought, Ten housande maidyns
fayre of face Unto the Sowdan
hath he broghte '
228 ss. 'The Sowdane commaunded
hem anone That thai shulde al
be slayne . . . He saide "My
peple nowe ne shalle With hem
noughte defouled be'"
278 ' He clepede his engynour Sir
289 ' Mahoundis benysone thou shalt
420 ' Ensemble ou li issirent xv roi
corone Et xiv amaceours '
1 154 * Bien i a xxx roi et xiv admire '
689 ' xxx roi sont ou li et xiv ama-
163 ' Et xiv amaceours *
115-16 'De eels de Komenie que
m'ont fait desrobber. Tiel
avoir m'ont robbe '
119 'vous quidai presenter'
Uns vens nous fist a Rome
parmi le far sigler '
217 Par C fois M payen '
228 ' pour Fran9ois menacier '
332 ' Et menace Francois pour faire
les loye '
546-47 * Quant encor nen est lance
quassee ne brusie, Ne halbers
derompus, ne fors targe percie '
613-19 'Lucafer de Baldas discent
al mestre tre, Devant Pamirail
vint, forment Fa encline : Voy-
ant tot ses barnages Fa 1'eschec
presente, Moigues, prestres et
lais, que sont enchenee, Her-
mites et enfants, a tons lor
poign lie ; As f emmes et pucels
les os furent bende, Totes vives
presentent par devant 1'ad-
614 ' Maintenant soient tot occis et
descoupe. Ne voil que mi
serjant en soient encombre.'
908 ' Sortibrans a mande Mabon 1'en-
627 ' Mai ion te benoie '
925 ' Mahou te doint honor '
THE 'SOWDONE' AND THE 'DESTRUCTION.'
286 ' And fille the dikes faste anoone '
203 ' Men my ght go even to the walle'
307 ' The hethen withdrowe hem thQ '
317 ' His baner knowe I f ul welle '
331 ' He entred to the maistre toure '
332 'The firste warde thus they
346-50 'And Estragot with him he
mette With boree hede, blake
and donne. For as a bore an
hede hadde And a grete mace
stronge as stele. He smote
Savaryz as he were madde '
587 ' Therfore Gy of Bourgoyne 1
Myn oweu nevewe so trewe '
647 'He smote of the tray tours hede '
648 'And saide "Gode gife him care,
Shal he never more ete brede,
AU traitours evel mot thai
663 'Ferumbras to Seinte Petris
727 * Thre hundred thousande of sow-
743 ' Sir Gye aspied his comynge,
He knewe the baner of Fraunce,
He wente anoone ayen the Kinge,
And tolde him of that mys-
Howe that the cursed sowdone,
Hath brent Rome and bore the
relequis awaye '
771 ' Wynde him blewe ful fayre and
778 <T< londe thai wente iwis'
783 Tithinggis were tolde to Lavan '
787 ' With three hundred thousand of
934 ' Si emplirons les fosses '
918 'K'om poet aler al mure'
952 ' K'om pooit bien au mur et
venir et aler '
979 ' Payen se sont retrait '
997 'Jeo ai bien ses armes conu et
1011 'Tantost le mestre porte aurons
moult bien ferme '
1057 ' Mais tot le premier bail ont
Sarasin pople '
1090-94 'Estragot le poursuit, uns
geans diffaes, Teste avoit com
senglers, si fu rois corones.
El main tient une mace de fin
ascier trempe. Un coup a
Savariz desur le chef done '
1179 ' Et Guion de Bourgoyne a a lui
apelle, Fils est de sa soror et
de sa parente : Cosins, vous en
irr6s . .'
1236 ' Le chief al portier trenche '
1244 '"Diex" fist il " te maldie et
que font engendre, Kar trai-
tour au darain averont mal
1260 ' Al moustier de saint Piere est
Fierenbras ales '
iii C mil chevaliers '
Guis parceut le baniere le roi
de saint Dine, Encontre lui
chevalche, la novele ont conte
Come la fort cite" li payeu ont
gast6 * La corone et les clous
d'iloec fen sont robbe" Et les
altres reliques . .'
Li vens en fiert es voilles que
les a bien guies '
1427 ' il sont en terre entr6 '
1436 ' Les noveles en vindrent al
soldan diffaie '
1443 'iii C mile
Other instances of resemblance may be found in the following
8 49-50 = D 94-99 * S 103 = D 202, 209 ; S 119 = D 385 ;
S 146 - D 445-46 ; S 150 = D 503-4 ; S 157 = D 509 ; S 300 =
1 The French text will be found in the Notes, which see.
THE ORIGINAL OF THE FIRST PART OF THE ' SOWDONE.' XXV
967; 303 = Z>915; S39G = .D977; 312=:jD989; S 340
= D 1063; 8360 = D 1101; S 376 = D 1119,1121; S 377 =
D 1133 ; 8 380 = Z) 1136 ; 699 = D 1379 ; 8 723 = D 1384,
Besides, there are some names which occurring in none of the
French versions, but in the Destruction, point to this poem as to the
original of the Soiodan. Thus Savaris 1 (S 171) seems to be taken
from D 540.
Astragot or Estragot, S 346, 4902, the name of the giant by
whom Savaris is slain, and who is said to be the husband of Barrock,
occurs in D 1090.
The Ascopartes, a people subjected to the Soudan, are mentioned
in D 98, 426, but not in F or P.
King Lowes, in the context where it occurs (S 24) is clearly taken
from D 9.
Iffrez, S 165, is perhaps the same as Geffroi in D 1139, 1367,
[Mounpelers, S 3228, occurs only in D 250, 286.]
Persagyn, S 1259, seems to be identical with Persagon, D 162.
The form Laban is only met with in the Destruction, the French
and the Provencal versions, and the Ashmole Ferumbras reading
The name of the Soudan's son, Ferumbras, is explained by the
form Fierenbras, which occurs in D 57, 66, 71, 91, 343, 1210, 1237,
besides the spelling Fierabras, which is the only one used in the
French, the Provengal and Caxton's versions.
Also the phrase ' eowdan ' seems to have been derived from the
Destruction (1. 1436, 'soldan'), as it does not occur in any other
The great number of these resemblances seem evidently to point
out the Destruction as the original of the first portion of the Sowdan ;
the few points in which the two versions differ not being such as to
offer convincing arguments against this supposition.
1 For these names, the Index of Names may be referred to.
2 In some passages the Destruction shows also the spelling Ualan, but
Laban is more common.
XXvi DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ' SOWDONE ' AND THE ' DESTRUCTION.'
Indeed if, for instance, we find a lot of nations, the names of
which are not in D, mentioned by the author of the poem as belonging
to the Soudan's empire, this point can be considered as irrelevant,
as from many other instances we know how fond many composers
of mediaeval romances were of citing geographical names, by the great
number of which they believed to show their knowledge in that
science. 1 Also the three names of Saints (Qwyntyn, Symon, Fre-
mond 2 ), and the names of five Saracen gods and of a Saracen bishop, 3
many of which, moreover, seem to be inserted only for the sake of
rhyme, cannot be regarded as being of great consequence in establish-
ing the source of the Sowdan. Others also, as Oliborn, Focard,
Hubert, Gyndard, Tamper (the last occurring twice as a rhyme-
word), being the names of insignificant characters, may be looked
upon as mere expletives. Another variation is Isrez (11. 625, 641)
for Tabour (D 1202).
Besides these variations in the names contained in the two poems,
we find in the Sowdan some slight modifications as to the matter
related ; none of which, however, is of so significant a character, as
necessarily to point to some other original than the Destruction,
which the very striking points of resemblance above cited show
almost decisively to have been the original of the Sowdan. The Dif-
ferences in the subject-matter may be explained by the tendency of
the poet to follow his original only as far as the principal events are
concerned, but to have his own way in the arrangement of the sub-
ject-matter, and especially to deal freely with secondary incidents.
Thus he may have thought the combat round Chateau-Miroir
which, moreover, is related in the Destruction in a rather obscure and
confused style to be a rather episodical incident, which he had
better leave out in his poem, as not advancing the principal course
A similar explanation may be given of the fact, that the account
of Lukafer's desiring the hand of Floripas is given on another occa-
sion in the Sowdan than in the Destruction. In the Destruction,
1. 241, Lucafer claims that maiden immediately on arriving in the
1 See note to 1. 1000. 2 See note to 1. 2842.
a Dissertation, p. 20.
THE TWELVE PEERS. XXVll
Soudan's camp, as a reward for his having travelled such a long way
in Laban's service. The poet of the Sowdan thinking, perhaps, that
this was not a sufficient reason to justify such a claim, mentions this
incident at another time, which he may have considered as more pro-
perly chosen for demanding a reward. It is on returning from a
victorious expedition undertaken by Lukafer that the latter in the
Sowdan, 11. 224 242, asks for the hand of Floripas.
As to the following or second part of the Soicdtw, on the whole
the same subject is treated of as in the Ashmole Ferumbras. But
there are many differences between the two poems.
In the Sowdan, 1. 1411 et seq., Roland is captured by the Sara-
cens at the same time as Oliver, and both on being conducted before
Laban at once avow their names. In the Ashmole MS., 11. 909, &c.,
Oliver is led away to the Soudan together with Gwylmer, Berard,
Geoffrey, and Aubray, whereas Roland is among the French peers
whom Charlemagne sends on a mission to Laban to demand the
surrender of Oliver. 1
The names of the twelve peers do not agree in both poems. In
the Sowdan we find the following list (cf. 11. 1653 et seq., and 11.
1730, 880) : Roland, Oliver, Duk Neymes of Bavere, Oger Danoys,
Tery Lardeneys, Folk Baliante, Aleroyse of Loreyne, Miron of
Braban, Bishop Turpyn, Bernard of Spruwse, Bryer of Mountez, 2
Guy of Bourgoyne. 3 Richard of Normandye, although a most im-
portant personage, is not included amongst the Douzeperes. Nor is
Guenelyn mentioned as a peer of France. Four of these names, Folk
Baliant, Turpyn, Bernard of Spruwse, Aleroyse of Loreyne, do not
occur at all in the Ashmolean Ferumbras*
The new game which Lucafer wants to teach Neymes, is differ-
ently described in the two poems, there being no mention made in
the Ashmol. MS. (11. 2231 et seq.) of the thread, needle, and coal, as
spoken of in 11. 1998 2000 of the Soivdan.
1 See note to 1. 1663. 2 Cf. note to 1. 1723.
3 Mr. Herrtage, in his note to the Ashmol. MS., 1. 259, reproduces from
the Eoxburghe Club edition, Introd. p. vi. the list of the twelve peers in the
French version of the Grenville copy, 10531, which he erroneously takes for
that of the Sowdan.
* But there is one " Alorys j?e erld of Brye," mentioned in the Ashm. MS.,
11. 935, 2842, 4076, &c.
XXViii DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ' SOWDONE ' AND ' SIR FERUMBRAS.'
In the Sowdan, 1. 2507, Laban, being engaged with his gods,
seizes the image of Mahound and smashes it. This incident is
omitted in Syr Ferumbras (11. 3345).
In the Ashmole MS., 11. 5760 et seq., Ferumbras tries to persuade
his father to become a Christian, whilst Floripas urges Charles not to
delay in putting him to death. In the Sowdan, 1. 3156 et seq., there
is no mention of either of them interfering either for or against their
Ashm. MS., 11. 130 et seq., differs greatly from the corresponding
passage in the Sowdan (11. 1647 et seq.). In the latter poem the
knights are pulled up from their dungeon with a rope, whilst in the
former they have their fetters taken off by means of a sledge-hammer,
anvil, and tongs, &c.
In the Sowdan, 1. 3044, Eichard of Normandy is left back as a
governor of Mantrible ; in the Ashmole version, 1. 4881 et seq. t
Raoul and Howel are ordered to keep that place, whereas Richard
accompanies Charlemagne (cf. 1. 5499).
In the Ashm. MS., 1. 5209, Neymes sees first Charles coming
with his host in the Sowdan, 1. 3083, it is Floripas who first
discovers the banner of France.
The prayer which Charlemagne, seeing Oliver in distress, ad-
dressed to Christ, in the Sowdan, 1. 1304 et seq., is not mentioned in
the Ashm. version.
The account of the duel between Oliver and Ferumbras differs
considerably in the two versions. In the Ashmolean MS., 1. 580,
the incident of Oliver assisting Ferumbras to arm (cf. Sowdan, 1158)
is omitted, and it is not Oliver (as in the Sowdan, 1. 1270) who is
disarmed, but Ferumbras, whom his adversary offers to accept his
own sword back (Ashm. MS., 1. 680).
In the Ashmolean version, 1. 102, Ferumbras offers to fight at
once with twelve of Charles's knights ; in the corresponding passage
of the Sowdan, 1. 1067, he challenges only six.
In the Sowdan, 1. 1512 et seq., Floripas advises her father not to
slay the captive peers, but to detain them as hostages that might be
exchanged for Ferumbras. In the Ashm. MS., 1. 1178, it is not
Floripas, but Lamasour, who gives that advice to the amirant.
THE 'SOWDONE' AND THE FRENCH ' FIERABRAS.' xxix
As in many of the variations, mentioned just before, there are
many omissions in the Ashmole MS., which are related in the
Sowdan, it becomes evident that the Ashmolean version cannot have
been the original from which the Sowdan was copied, which is also
proved by several names occurring in the Sowdan, but which are
not to be found in Syr Ferumbras. Thus, for instance, the names
of Espiard, Belmore, Fortibrance, Tamper, 1 do not occur at all in. the
Ashmolean version, whereas other names have quite a different form
in the latter poem. For Generyse, S 1135, 1239, we find Gar in,
A 216, 443; Barrock, S 2939, 2943, 3022 = Amyote, A 4663;
Alagolofur, S 2135, 2881 = Agolafre, A 3831, 4327; and Lalan is
always spelt Bdlan in the Ashmolean poem, &c.
Now as there are some passages where the Sowdan, while it differs
from the Ashm. MS., corresponds with the French Fierabras, we
might be inclined to think that poem to be the original of the
Sowdan. Thus Charlemagne's prayer and the name of Bishop Turpin,
which are omitted in the Ashm. MS., occur in the French Fierabras.
But there are several differences between the Sowdan and the French
In the Fierabras, 1. 1933, the French prisoners, on being brought
before the Soudan, do not avow their true names as they do in the
Sowdan, 1. 1498.
In the French poem, 1. 704, Oliver tells his adversary his name
before the fight begins ; in the Sowdan, 1. 1249, he does not confess
his true name until they had fought for a considerable time.
In the Fierabras, 1. 1043, Oliver drinks of the bottles of balm,
which is not mentioned in the Sowdan, 1. 1190.
Again, Fierabras, 11. 1329 ss., where Ferumbras having disarmed
Oliver, tells him to take his sword back again, does not agree with
11. 1279-82 of the Sowdan.
Instead of Floripas (S 1515), Brulans advises the Soudan not to
slay the prisoners in F 1949.
The French knight slain at the sally of the captives is called
Bryer in S 2604, but Basin in F 3313.
1 There is one Teni-pler mentioned in the Ashm. MS., 1. 2673. But he is
not identical with Tamper of the Sowdan, 11. 2641, 2667.
XXX DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE SOWDONE AND THE FIERABRAS.
Concerning the sacred relics there is no mention made of the
cross (S 3236) in the French poem, and the signe, i.e. 'the shroud
or winding-sheet of the Lord' 1 (F 6094), is omitted in the
So wd an.
Besides these variations of the two versions there is an incident
of Marsedag being killed by Guy, and buried by the Saracens
(S 2247 2274), which being omitted in the Fierdbras proves that
the author of the Sowdan cannot have followed the French poem,
or at least not that version which is edited by MM. Kroeber and
Similarly there is no mention made in the French Fierabras of
IJryur being charged to take care of the relics and of Charles's
treasure (S 3204).
The game of blowing burning coals is related in Sowdan, L
1996 ss., with several details which are wanting in the French
poem, 1. 2907.
The names also do not always agree in both versions. Thus we
find Generyse, S 1139, for Garin, F 438; Mapyn, S 2325, for
Maubmn, F 3046; Alagolofur, S 2135, for Agolafre, F 4290 or
Golafre, F 4267, 4383; Bryer, S 2604, for Basin, F 3313; Mara-
gounde, S 1563, for Marabunde, F 2196; Boloyne, S 3238, for St.
Denis, F 6199; BaroWce, S 2939, and Espiard, S 2145, are not
mentioned at all in the French Fierabras, nor does Belmore, S 3122,
occur in the Fierabras, either in the corresponding passage, F 5867,
On the fact that the names of the twelve peers (see above, p. xxvii)
differ in the Sowdan from those mentioned in the Fierabras, too
much stress need not, I think, be laid, as it might be explained by
the simple inadvertence of the composer. The poet in freely repro-
ducing his source, which he generally followed pretty closely as far
as relates the course of events, well remembered the names of the
principal French knights; but having forgotten those of less im-
portant characters, some of whom do not appear again in the poem,
and being obliged to fill up their number of twelve, might have
placed any names which he remembered having met with somewhere
1 Greek mMv. Cf. Dissertation, pp. 45-4G.
THE ' SOWDONE AND THE HANOVER MS. XXXI
as included in the list of the donzeperes. By an oversight he omitted
to mention Richard, whom however we see appear afterwards. 1
Similarly the names of Laban and Ferumbras for Balan and
Fierabras afford no convincing proof of the impossibility of the French
Fierabras being the original of the second part of the Sowdan, as
the poet, having found those spellings in the Destruction, the source
of the first portion of his romance, might simply have retained them
for the whole poem.
But reviewing all the facts of the case, and taking into account
those passages which relate incidents omitted in the Fierabras, and
which the author of the Sowdan therefore cannot have taken from
that poem and further taking into account the several differences
between the two versions, which, it may be admitted, generally speak-
ing, are only slight ones the French Fierabras, i. e. the version
edited by MM. Kroeber and Servois, which represents the group w
(see before, p. xix, footnote), cannot have been the original of the
second part of the Sowdan.
Proceeding now to a comparison of the Sowdan with the Escorial
MS., 2 we have not found any passage where S differing from F
agrees with E, as E and F generally have in those places the same
reading. Therefore the Escorial IMS. cannot be regarded as the
original of the Sowdan.
Unfortunately the fragment printed from the Hanover MS. is too
short to allow of an exact comparison with that version. We only
know 3 that some names, the spelling of which in the Sowdan differs
from that in the other versions, have the same form in the Hanover
MS. as in the Soivdan. Thus we find the following names agreeing
in both versions : Lucafer, Marayoncle, Maupyn. Only instead of
Laban which is used in the Sowdan, we read Balan. In the frag-
ment printed by Grceber, 4 we find the name of the Soudan's son
1 See note to 1. 2535.
2 There being only a small fragment printed of the Didot MS. (Epopees
Fr. ii. 307), a comparison of the Sowdan with this version is impossible at
present. But as the Didot MS. belongs to the same group as E, what results
from a comparison of S with E may be assumed for the Didot MS.
3 See Zeltschrlft filr romanische Pkilologie, iv. pp. 164, 170.
4 Jahrbuch fur romanische und cnglische Sprache und Literatur, xiii.
xxxii THE 'SOWDONE' COMPARED WITH THE PROVENCAL VERSION.
with the same spelling as in the Destruction, Fierenbras, which is
nearer to Ferumbras than Fier&bras. 1
This resemblance of the names contained in the two versions
might lead us to believe the Hanover MS. of Fierabras to be the
original of the second part of the Sowdan, just as the Destruction,
found in the same MS., is the original of the first part. But as,
according to Gaston Paris, the Hanoverian version " is the same as
the printed text, differing only in slight variations of readings," 2 we
may suppose it likely that in all passages where the Sowdan differs
from the printed Fierabras, it also differs from the Hanover MS.
Nevertheless, as the differences between the Sowdan and the printed
Fierabras are, on the whole, not very significant; for the several
instances of omission in the Sowdan, being easily accounted for by
the general plan of the poet, cannot be regarded as real variations ;
and as some names, the spelling of which differs in S and F, are
found to be identical in S and H, we might, perhaps, be entitled to
think the second part of the Sowdan to be founded on a MS. similar
to the Hanover one.
It still remains for us to compare the Soiodan with the Provencal
In most cases where differs from F, it also differs from P,
therefore S cannot have taken those variations of readings from the
The account of the knights sent on a mission to Laban, in
S 1663 1738, considerably differs from the corresponding passage
in P 2211 ss.
In P the scene of the whole poem is placed in Spain, there is no
mention of the combat before Rome, 3 as in the first part of the
The game of blowing a coal, S 1996 ss., is not mentioned in the
From these variations, taken at random out of a greater number,
1 This example is not very striking, as the spelling Ferumbras may simply
have been retained from the first part of the poem ; see above, p.' xxxi.
a Syr Ferumbras, Introduction, p. xiv, footnote.
3 See HandschriftUche Gestaltungen, p. 14, and Dissert., p. 29.
THE ORIGINAL OP THE ' SOWDONE.' XXXiii
it becomes evident that the Provengal poem has not been the original
of the Sowdan.
If now we compare the Sowdan with Caxton's version, which we
know to be simply a translation of the French prose romance of
Fierabras ; l the few following instances of differences between G and
S will show at once, that also that version from which the prose
romance was copied or compiled 2 cannot have been the original of
There are several variations in the names contained in the two
versions. Thus we find Ballant in G for Laban in S; Fyerabras in
G for Fer\mibras in S ; Garin, G 55/3 = Generyse, S 1135; Amy-
otte, G 176/26 = Barrokk, S 1135, &c. The game of blowing a
coal is told with more details in S 1998, and somewhat differently
from G 118/24j the incident of Laban's seizing the image of
Mahound and smashing it, which is related in $ 2507, is omitted in
Looking back now to our investigation concerning the original of
the Sowdan, we sum up what results from it, in the following resume :
Most probably the Destruction de Rome is the original of the first
part of the Sowdan. As to the second part, we are unable to iden-
tify it with any of the extant versions. The French Fi&rdbras, as
edited by MM. Krceber and Servois, is not the original, but the
differences between the two poems are not significant ; apparently a
version similar to the Hanover MS. may be thought to be the original.
The Sowdan is no translation, but a free reproduction of its
originals ; the author of the Sowdan following his sources only as far
as concerns the course of the principal events, but going his own
independent way in arranging the subject-matter as well as in many
The Sowdan differs from the poem of Syr Ferumbras in two
principal points :
(1) In being an original work, not in the conception, but in the
treatment of the subject-matter, whereas the Ashmolo Fc.rumlras is
little more than a mere translation.
1 Histeire Poetique, p. 157.
2 And to which only a few very insignificant additions were made by the
author ; see Hist. Poet., p. 99, bottom.
XXxiv THE DIALECT OF THE ' SOWDONE.'
(2) In representing, in its first portion, the first part of the old
Balan romance, whereas Syr Feruinbras contains only the second.
But as that second part of the old Balan romance appears to be con-
siderably modified and greatly amplified in the Ashmole Ferumbms,
so the first part of the Sowdan contains a likewise modified, but
much shortened, narration of the first part of the old Balan poem, so
that the Soicdan has arrived to become quite a different work from
the original Balan or Fierabras romance, and that a reconstruction
of the contents of that old poem would be impossible from the
LANGUAGE AND SUMMARY OF GRAMMATICAL
As regards the language of the Sowdan, the first point is the
dialect. Looking at the plurals of the present indicative in -en or -n,
we at once detect the Midland peculiarities of the poem. Thus we
find, 1. 1331, gone rhyming with one, 1. 1010, goon : camalyon, 1. 506,
gone : than, 1. 1762, lyven : gyfen, 1. 1816, lyyleven : even.
The verbal forms of the singular present indicative and of the
second person sing, preterite of weak verbs lead us to assign this
poem to an East-Midland writer. The 2nd and 3rd person singular
present indicative end in -est, -eth; and the 2nd person sing, preterite
of weak verbs exhibits the inflection -est : 1. 1202, goist : moost ;
1314, 1715, knowest; 1344, trowest ; 1154, Uowest ; 1153, saiest ;
2292, forgetist; 560, doist ; 1193, doistowe ; 1093, gotli : wroth,
1609 -.loth, 1620 -.doth; 1728, sleith : deth ; 561, sholdest ; 1244,
shuldist; 603, madist ; 563, hadist ; 2219, askapedist, &c. Twice
we find the 2nd person preterite without -est (made, wroght) ; but see
the note to 1. 2.
If, now, we examine the phonological and inflectional peculiar-
ities of the Soivdan, we find them thoroughly agreeing with those of
other East-Midland works, 1 which still further confirms the sup-
position of the East-Midland origin of the poem.
See Morris's Preface to Genesis and Exodus, Skeat's Introduction to
the Dane, and Mall's edition of Harrowing of Hell (Breslau, 1871).
PHONOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES. XXXV
/ or y, the descendants of original u (which in Old English
[Anglo-Saxon] had already become y or i in consequence of i- muta-
tion or umlaut) are found rhyming with original i: 11. 449, 881,
kyn : him, 2060 : ivynne ; 1657, fille : stille ; 1973, fire : desire, &c.
It must, however, be noted that the rhyme If ing : inne (1. 372) or
king : tiling (11. 173, 236) cannot be regarded as an East-Midland
peculiarity, because king, drihten, cliikken, the i of which is a modifi-
cation of original u, are to be met with in all Middle-English dialects,
as has been shown by Professor Zupitza in the Anzeiger fur deutsches
Altertum, vol. vi. p. 6.
Old English short a, which is liable to change into a, appears in.
(1) always as o, before n- combinations (nd, nt, ng) : 531,
stronge : istonge ; 3166, bronte : fonte ; 214, amonge : longe, &c.
(2) as a, before the single consonants m and n: 1120, name :
shame, 935 : same, 1739 : grame; 785, 1773, man : Lavan ; 3125,
came : Lavan (cf. 2579, Lavan : tane) 5 2160, came : dame, &c.
The fact that com (11. 547, 1395, 3095, &c.) is used as well as cam
as sing, preterite indie, need occasion no difficulty if we remember
that the original short a (or o) of cam (or com) had already been
lengthened into 6 in the O.E. period. 1 Came and come as pret. sing,
are employed indifferently in Chaucer as well as in the Celestin (ed.
Horstmann, Anglia, i. 56), which is known to have been composed
in the East-Midland dialect.
long, from O.E. a, in our poem has that broad sound which
is peculiar to the East -Midland dialect. We find it rhyming
(1) original 6: 1025, wrothe : sothe; 801, goo : doo ; GO, inowe :
Howe ; 325, so : ido, &c.
(2) unchangeable a : 257, Aufncanes : stoones ; 506, gon : than;
2049, agoon : Lavan, &c.
As many East-Midland works 2 the Sowdan has three forms for
O.E. J>ar: thare, thore, there, all of which are established by the
rhyme : 1805, thore : Egremoure (cf. 2895, Egremoure : tresoure,
1003, Agremore : more)', 126, thore : lore; 430, thare : sware ;
1 See Sweet, Anglia, iii. 152. 2 Cf. Mall. Harrowing of Hell, p. 18.
XXXVI GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES : NOUNS.
2245, there : chcre, 2404 : bere ; 2604, there : were (wseron), 208 :
were (werian), &c.
We likewise find sore and sare 1 (O.E. sare) : 1196, sore : more ;
166, sare : care; 1377, sore : thore.
The O.E. diphthongs ea and eo and the O.E. $ (mutated from ea
or eo) appear as e in this poem : 1595, me : see, 632 : fee, 1339 :
free, 405 : be; 1535, depe : slepe; 1011, 1523, dere : here; 963,
yere : vere, 1257 : Olyvere ; 996, nere : were; 596, 1528, nede : spede ;
1702, eke : speke ; 1726, leke : speke; 184, 215, 1208, shelde : felde ;
2530, hevene : elevene, &c.
A brief summary of the grammatical inflexions employed in the
poem will also give evidence of a great similarity with the forms
used by other East-Midland writers, and will serve to show that the
language of the Soiodan agrees closely with that of Chaucer.
In the declension of substantives the only remnant of case-
formation by means of inflexions is the ending used to form the
Genitive Singular and the Plural.
The genitive singular of nouns ends in es (sometimes written -is
or ys) for all genders: 356, develes ; 1209, stedes ; 849, worldis ;
1804, worldes; 3Q35,dammes; I64:l,nedes; 1770, shippes ; 1072,
Substantives ending in -s in the nominative case, remain un-
changed in the genitive case: 1214, 1287, Ferumbras ; 2006,
Nai/mes; 3207, Charles; 1639, 1350, Floripas.Florip, 1. 614, is
the genitive case of Floripe or Florip, 1. 2027, 1571.
The nominative plural of all genders is formed by -es (-is, -ys} or
-s: 919, knightes, 1947, 2^6,knightis; 1384, 7*0m?s, 1401, horsi/s ;
429, 2054, gatis; 192, wordes ; 837, swerdes ; 174, hedes ; 2289,
ladies; 3271, soules ; 26, bokes; 60Q,peres ; 297, tours, &c. Examples
of a plural case without s are seen in thinge, 1. 2, 1709 : O.E. \ing ;
honde, 987, O.E. handa, as well as hondes, 1412, 2568 ; frende, 3212,
O.E. frtfnd, as well as frendes, 1011, O.E. freondas. Other plurals
which are equally easily explained by their O.E. forms are : eyen,
825, O.E. eagan; shoone, 1381, O.E. sceon; fete, 1403, O.E. fet t
fote, 1427, O.E.fotum, 2673, O.E. fdta.
1 Cf. Schjpper, Alexiuslegenden, 98/121.
GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES : PRONOUNS. XXXV11
To mark the difference between the definite and indefinite forms
of adjectives is a difficult task ; as the final -e had in most cases
already become silent in the poet's dialect, it seems probable that he
no longer observed the distinction.
The pronouns are the same as in Chaucer and in other East-
Midland poems : /, me, thou, the ; he, hym ; sche, her and hir ; it
and hit (cf. note to 1. 41) ; we, us; ye, you. The plural of the per-
sonal pronoun of the 3rd person is thai and he (cf. note to 1. 2698)
for the nominative case ; hem, and in some doubtful passages (see
note to 1. 88) thaym for the accusative case.
As in Chaucer, the pronoun of the 2nd person is often joined to
the verb : hastow 1680, maistow 1826, shaltow 1669, icoltow 1727,
wiltow 1151, artow 1967, kanstow 2335, &c.
Possessive pronouns : myn and thyn are used before vowels and
before h ; my, thy before consonants. Only once, 1. 90, my is placed
before a vowel. His, hire and here ; our, your ; here and (twice,
623, 1244) thair.
The demonstrative pronouns are this, these or thes ; that.
The definite article the or \e, is used< for all cases singular and
plural. But we find besides, the following examples of inflexion :
tho, 2063, O.E. J?a, and the accusative sing. ]>on, 108. In 1. 2052, tho
means ' them, those' = Lat. eos. Tha, 1. 2639, seems to be a mis-
take of the scribe, it is perhaps miswritten for \at (day), cf. 1. 619.
Men, 115, 1351, and me, 287, are used as indefinite pronouns.
Everyche, every, everychone occur frequently. Note also ichoon
2774, ilka 2016; thilke 2644, eche 1865.
That or \at, who, whome are used as relative pronouns. The
interrogative pronouns are who and what.
* Verls. The plural imperative ends in -eth or -th, which, how-
ever, we find frequently omitted, as in 1. 194, prove you, 2078
proveth; 2131 sende, 167 sendith ; telle 1977, tellyth 1625, &c.
The -n of the infinitive mood is often dropped, as in Chaucer :
274, 1588, sene : bene; 1124, see : tre; 658 : cite; 600, be : cite ; 1225 :
contre; 1411, flee : cite; 3065,/ee^ : men; 1282, sloo :mo; 792,sloone :
The final -(e)n of past participles of strong verbs is in most cases
CHARL. ROM. V.
XXXV111 GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES : VERBS.
dropped, as in Chaucer : 317Q forlonie : borne, 32 bom, 3011 wonne,
21 wonnen, 2756 comen : nomen, 155 come, 2476 holpe, 1362 bygote,
1026 Moice, &c.
Weak verbs form their past participles in -ed, -d, -et, -t, much as
in Chaucer : lerned 3042, eyde 1648, toolde 670, logt 111, delte
526, displaied 133.
The prefix /- or ?/- occurs sometimes, icome 784, come 155,
istonge 533, tYa&e 49, taken 1430, &c.
The present participles end in -inge and ande, as is often the case
in East-Midland works : 2831 prikandr. : comande, 435 cry ande,
924 malfande, 3225 mornynge : Itynge, 2399 slepynge : honde, where
evidently slepande is the true reading.
As in Chaucer the 2nd person preterite of strong verbs is some-
times formed by -est or -ist, Ittist 2167 ; but we find also regular
forms, as in slough 1259, where, however, the O.E. e (sloge) is
The -en or -n of the preterite plural and of past participles is
commonly dropped, ronnen 3007, ronne 2959, took 477, toltene 2621,
slough 78, sloughen 401, ido 327 : so, &c.
The -d in the past participles and in the preterite of weak verbs
is sometimes omitted, as often happens in East-Midland works.
Thus we find comforte 2242 and comforted 312, commaunde 57 and
commaunded 228, grannie 607, liste 1132, list 1966, discumfite 1464,
&c. On the same analogy we find light 1125, 1189, and lighted
3109, worth 1203, and worthed 1163.
As regards the final -e's, it may be remarked that the scribe has
added many final -e's, where the rules would not lead us to suspect
them, and has often given a final -e to words which in other passages
of the poem, although similarly used, have no e : 'note 245, 274, not
255, 313; Iwce, 19, how 275; undere 61, under 713; lute 247, but
8; cooste 202, coo^ 3062; cm/te 424, craft 2335; ashamede 1295,
ashamed 558, &c.
This is due either to carelessness on the part of the scribe, or
perhaps to the fact that in the speech of the copyist the final e's had
already become altogether silent, so that finding many words ending
in -e and not knowing its meaning, he considered it as a mere
THE FINAL -E, -EN. XXxix
"ornament in writing" (Ellis, Pronunciation, i. 338), and sometimes
added, sometimes omitted it.
With respect to the composer of the Sowdan himself, there may
be some doubt left whether in his speech the final e had become
altogether silent, or was still pronounced occasionally. From the
following instances it may be concluded with certainty that the poet
very frequently did not sound the final e : 757 boghte : noght, 3154
hat : fat, 961 wronye : destruction, 556 onlace : was ; cf. also 1383,
1611, 2163; 2795 speke we of Richard, 2999 fought, 2093, 859
fringe, 9, 2547 kepte,-834: wente, 142 come, 713 wode.
In other cases there is no certainty whether the final e is quite
silent or must be slightly pronounced or slurred over, so as to form
trisyllabic measures. It must be noted, however, that in supposing
trisyllable measures in all these doubtful cases, the number of this
kind of measure will increase to a great amount in the Sowdan.
Therefore I rather incline to think the final e silent also in the fol-
lowing instances : 2090 defende this place, 1201 breke both bake,
861 come from dl, 2119 aske consaile, 1597 wole these traitours, 1783
whens come ye, 2317 passe that brigge, 1100 ronne bylwene, 2997
fought so longe, 175 broke notJnnge, 1658 bedde with right, 713 grene
wode side, 571 home to Rome that nyght, 1610 the fdls jailour fedde
your prisonere, 2152 fdls traitours of France, 921 charged the yonge
witli dl, 380 aboiite midnyghte, 726 sone to him, 160 unneth not 6ne
[Chaucer still pronounces unnethe].
Nevertheless there seems to be some instances where the final e
is to be sounded, as in 11. 298, 2790, 1332, 1619, 2740, 592, 2166,
2463, 1405, 2386, 895, 332, 91.
Final en also seems sometimes not to constitute a separate syl-
lable : 1365 waiten uppon me, 459 breken our wdllis, 45 slepen with
opyne y^e, 485 c6men by the cost, 2313 diden it about, &c.
In all these cases n had very probably already fallen off in the
speech of the poet, as the following examples lead us to suppose :
178 wynne : him, 1582 dye : biwry, 2309 shewe : trewe, 2107 slepe to
I6nge, 861 come from dl, &c.
As regards the final es of nouns, the poet seems to have observed
the same rules as those followed by Chaucer j viz. es is sounded when
X METRE AND VERSIFICATION.
joined to monosyllabic stems ; it does not increase the number of
syllables (and therefore is often spelt -s instead of -es), when the stem
has two or more syllables : 197, 277 goddes, 665 nailes, 445 tentes,
2068 tent'is, 174, 1799 hedes, 2032, 2868 swerdes, 2327 walles, 1209
stedes, 1770 shippes, 2702 somers, 2687, 2591 felowes, 2660 felows,
2412 maydyns, 647, 1597 traytours, 2036 orders, 45 lovers, 2612,
3098 develes, W72faderis, 203, 862 sowdons, 881 *r^?z*.
The final es of adverbs seems no longer to constitute a separate
syllable : 2213 hongecP els by, 2786 'els had' he, 2109 ellis 1 may
singe, 1525 elks woV he, 2061 them, 1783 whens.
METRE AND VERSIFICATION.
THE poem is composed in four-line stanzas. The arrangement of
the rhyme is such that the 1st and 3rd lines rhyme together, and the
2nd and 4th together, which gives the following rhyme-formula :
a I a b. The rhyme-endings employed in one stanza do not occur
again in the next following.
But it must be noticed that there seem to occur some instances
of eight-line stanzas, one of which, beginning at 1. 1587, is built on
the model employed by Chaucer, Others are arranged differently.
Those beginning at 11. 1059 and 1219 show the rhyme-formula
ababacac, in that of 1. 1411 the 2nd and 4th lines are
rhymed together, and the 5th and 7th, whilst the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 8th,
all end with the same rhyme. The formula for the stanzas beginning
at 11. 807, 879, 1611 isababcbcb. In the stanza of 1. 939 all
the pair lines are rhymed together, and the odd ones also, which is
the only instance in the poem of eight consecutive lines having only
two rhyme-endings, as generally eight lines show four different rhyme-
endings, and three only in the passages cited above. But the whole
stanza of 1. 939 seems not to be due to the author; he has very
probably borrowed it from some other poem. 1
Turning now our attention to the fact that the lines occurring
between the Initials or Capital Letters, which are met with in some
passages in the MS., are often divisible by eight, we might feel
1 See note to 1. 939.
THE 'SOWDONE' COMPOSED IN 4-LiNE STANZAS. xli
inclined to regard this as an additional reason for considering the
stanza employed in the Sowdan as an eight-line one. Indeed, the
portion from the Initial of 1. 1679 to the next one of 1. 1689 might
be taken for one single stanza. The 24 lines from 1. 575 (beginning
with an Initial) to the next Initial in 1. 598 might equally be con-
sidered as three stanzas, whilst there are 5 times 8 lines = 5 eight-
line stanzas from the Initial of 1. 2755 to the next Initial in 1. 2795.
In all these instances the supposition of eight-line stanzas would
suit the context, as is the case also with other passages. Thus in the
following cases it might seem as though eight lines taken together
were more closely connected and made better sense than four lines,
e.g. 11. 583598, 17031710, 16791686, 939962, 10431050,
244 ss., 455 ss., 631 ss., 1059 ss.
But, on the other hand, it must be borne in mind that there aro
also a great many cases where, as regards the sense, four lines can be
considered as an independent whole, when, e. g., the speech spoken
by a person is contained in four lines, and the words of another
person replying to the first follow in the next four lines. Very often
also these next four lines contain only a part of the second person's
reply, so that the remainder of his reply falls into the following
stanza. This * enjambement ' or continuation of the sense, and some-
times of the syntactical construction from one stanza to another, need
not, of course, prevent us from admitting the supposition of eight-
line stanzas ; as, upon the whole, it is met with in all poems com-
posed in stanzas, and as it is frequently used in Le Morte Atthur
(Harleian MS. 2252, ed. Furnivall), which is written in eight-line
stanzas ; but as there is no instance known of an eight-line stanza
containing four different rhyme-endings, which at this supposition it
would be the case with the Sowdan, the eight-line stanzas contain-
ing either three rhyme-endings, as in Chaucer, or two, as in Le Morte
Arthur, and as in some passages of the Sowdan (11. 1691, 1695, 1699,
1711, 1715), we find Initials placed after four lines, I believe a
stanza of four alternately rhyming lines to be the one intended by
the composer a metre which, according to Guest, History of Eng.
Rhythms, ii. 317 'must have been well known and familiar during
the fifteenth century.' The few eight-line stanzas quoted above, may
Xlll THE RHYMES OF THE TOEM.
then bo owing either to the inadvertence of the poet, who somewhat
carelessly employed one of the two rhyme-endings of one stanza a
third and fourth time in the following one, or, perhaps also, he inten-
tionally retained that rhyme-ending, and he inserted eight-line stanzas
amongst those of four verses as a mere matter of variation. It is
perhaps not impossible that the retention of this rhyme-ending was
not greatly felt.
As regards the rhymes themselves, they are both monosyllabic or
masculine rhymes, and dissyllabic or feminine ones. Frequently they
are used alternating with each other, as in the stanzas beginning with
Sometimes we find four feminine rhymes occurring in an un-
broken succession, as in 11. 1263-66. But it must be noticed that
the number of masculine rhymes is predominant. Thus the stanzas
beginning with 11. 3047, 3063, 3123, 1123, 791, 1035, 1271, 1275,
2019, 1311, 1351, 1463, &c., contain only masculine rhyme-endings.
The rhymes are not always full and true ; there occur many
(1) A word in the singular number is often rhymed with a word
in the plural number, which therefore has an additional s (or es) :
797, thinge : tidyngys ; 2647, fyght : hnyghtes ; 2087, light :
hnightes; 1455, cosynes : hinge; 2272, laye : dayes ; 2395, 885,
Ogere : peres ; 2456, alle : walles ; 2682, nede : stedes ; 944, mone :
stoones; cf. also 2376, wile, : beguiled. In 1. 68, poundis : dromonde ;
the rhyme becomes perfect in reading pounde, as in 1. 2336, instead
(2) Single n is found rhyming with n- combinations.
a. n : nd cf. 814, ychoon : Maliounde ; 912, pavilone : Ma-
hounde ; 1201, crowne : Mahounde. Therhyme, 162, Rome : houne,
may be explained in the same manner, for houne stands for hounde,
as it is spelt in 11. 237, 2377, 935, 1756. 1
(3. n : ng cf. 2349, Mapyne : endinge ; 86, Apolyne : tithing e ;
370, inne : hinge; 1455, cosynes : hinge; 3249, Genelyne : hinge;
3171, serpentyne : endinge; 959, destruction : wronge.
1 " This elision of a final d in such words as hond, Innd, sJield, held, &c., is
by no means uncommon in ancient poetry, and arises simply from pronuncia-
tion." Morris, Specimens of Early English, 320/261.
THE RHYMES OP THE POEM.
In 614, love : vowe, the second rhyme vowe does not contain
the consonant v.
(3) Khymes imperfect as concerns the consonants.
m : w cf. 76, Rome : one; 1672, 364 : done; 2443, 366, come :
done; 747, some : soudone ; 1323, came : than; 1488, came : ranne ;
2128, tyme :pyne; 177, him : wynne ; 2375, him : tene ; 447, 859,
him : kyn; 2004, hi/me : skyne ; 2353, him : inne.
f ; vcf. 341, twelve : selve ; 415, wife : alive ; 1762, gyfene :
lyvene; 1912, gife : lyve. But in all these cases the rhymes are
really perfect, they seem only imperfect in consequence of the copyist
writing indiscriminately / and v. Thus the rhyme of 1. 341 reappears
in 1. 1867, self : twelf. In 1. 2336 we find gefe, which is written ge\e
in 1. 198; lefe, 1. 764; safe, 1. 864, are spelt with v in 11. 1340,
I . ?? c f. l. 363 ? coiisaile : slayne. Quite similar is 1. 1251,
felde : sende.
p . j f l. 820, stoupe : stroke. A similar rhyme occurs in Guy,
1. 10903, scapid : nakid.
d ; t 1. 2868, gyrde : sterte; 1151, plete : dede.
d : p 1. 283, tyde : depe. But this rhyme is very .probably
owing to the scribe. For depe we ought to read wide.
A single consonant rhymes with a double consonant. The only
certain instance occurs in 1. 311, tyde : chidde. For in 11. 312, 317,
dele : icelle, we might read wele, as this word is frequently spelt in
the poem; cf. 11. 385, 2618, 1173, 1651, &c. For dedde in 1. 2980
(rede : dedde) we may substitute dede, which occurs in 1. 2510. The
rhyme glad : hadde, 2687, becomes perfect if we read gladde, which
is the usual spelling of the word in the poem ; cf. 11. 439, 570, 918,
&c. Besides, I believe hadde to be monosyllabic. Ferre : nere
1. 1575 ; in 1. 117 we find fere.
The rhyme, 1. 2654, sloughe : drowe can easily be restored in
reading slowe, which occurs frequently, as in 11. 2401, 2683, 304,
2208, &c. The rhyme ane : shafe, 555, seems to be due to some
(4) Rhymes imperfect as concerns the vowels.
a : e 2803, gate : lete; perhaps we are justified in reading late,
Xv THE RHYMES OF THE POEM.
cf. Havelock, 328 ; 1. 2752, made : dede. The rhymes tJtare : were,
1383 ; bare : there, 671 ; Agremare : there, 33, are really perfect
ones, as we know the poet to have used thare, there, and thore indis-
criminately ; cf. 11. 208, 2604, 430, 1805, 1003; 1. 1436, ladde :
nede ; 2365, ladde : bedde, the author probably pronounced ledde.
For lefte, 1. 2335 : craft, we may read lafte, as is shown by 1. 424,
lafte : crafte. In 11. 1781, 544, teue : than, the rhyme will be
improved by reading then.
a:o (cf. p. xxxv) 504, thane : gone ; 1 1 43, 1079, Rolande : honde ;
133, sowdone : Lavan (where we might read sowdan, as in 1. 1491) ;
627, sowdane : towne; 2527, 1684, Roulande : londe.
i (y) : e. This rhyme also occurs in Chaucer ; cf. Ellis, Pron. i.
272; see also Guy, p. xiv. 1. 21419, him : hem; 1299, dynte :
lente; 523, strike : brelce ; 1643, mylcfe : slielde ; 1263, togedere :
thidere; 1277, wepenless : iwis ; 344, shitte : mette ; 2538, hende :
wynde (read ivende), &c. ; 1. 82, vilane : remedye (read vilanye, as in
11. 179, 2577) ; but 1015, vilane : me, cf. Guy, xi, v 813, sle :
curies ye ; 895, we : lye; cf. Ellis, Pron., i. 271.
The monophthong y is rhymed with a diphthong, the second part
of which is y : 1. 441, Sarsynes : Romaynes ; 2761, Apolyne :
agayne; 2105 : slayne ; 2175 : eyne ; 2280, dye : waye (cf. 1582) ;
589, fyne : Bourgoyne.
o : ou (ow). 1. 1023, wrothe : southe (which is written sothe in
11. 2014, 2024, 2246, 2719); 779, fonde : grounde ; 260, clarione :
soune ; 879, Hone : crowne ; 2780, malison : toivne, &c. Cf. also
1264, endured : covered.
o : e. 463, oost : best. The rhyme is restored in reading rest
instead of oost.
: i. 1. 966, sonne : begynne.
ue : ewe. 1. 2312, vertve : fewe. But this rhyme cannot be ob-
jected to, as " final French u (as in due) was diphthongized into eu
in Chaucerian English." 1
Other irregularities are: 1. 112, donate : roivte ; 1987, use .
house; 1131, thou : lough; 1200, moost : goist ; 1730, dethe : sleith ;
1 Cf. Mr. Nicol's Paper in the Acartrmy of June 23. 1877, vol. xi. p. 564,
col. 1, and Seventh Annual Address of the President to the Philol. See., p. 2.
2136, pas : grace ; 1611, was : mace (in which cases e is silent) ; 931,
1144, peris : fiers.
A line or verse generally contains four accented syllables, separ-
ated from each other by one or by two unaccented syllables, so that
there are some instances of trisyllabic feet, as in 11. 817, 834, 2035,
2301, 2791, 3020, 3073, 2313, &c. In 11. 692, 695, two accented
syllables are put close together without being separated by an un-
accented one, which is altogether wanting. In some passages we find
lines of three accented syllables alternating with those of four accents,
as in 11. 575582, 763770, 839846, 871878, 22872290,
&c. But in most cases lines with four accents follow each other in
an unbroken succession, as in 11. 1372, 9951010, 10261029,
10671107, 11471154, 17311734, &c.
A few instances of verses with more than four accented syllables
are also to be met with in the Sowdan. They are either due to the
author and therefore intended, as in 1. 37, where the poet almost
literally imitates his original, 1 or they may be considered as due to
some clerical error, in which case the metre generally can be restored
by a slight emendation.
A verse has generally an iambic effect, that is to say, the first foot
begins with an unaccented syllable, which is followed by an accented
one. Frequently, however, the first accented syllable is preceded by
two unaccented ones, as in 11. 41, 75, 127, 151, 367, 849, 1060,
1815, 1819, 2289, 2758, &c. There are some instances of the first
foot consisting of a single (accented) syllable only, the unaccented
one being altogether wanting, as in 11. 2120, 2288, 2374, 2394, &c.
DATE OF THE POEM AND NAME OF THE AUTHOR.
GEORGE Ellis attributes the present poem to the end of the four-
teenth or beginning of the fifteenth century. " I think," he says in
his Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances, ed. Halliwell,
p. 380, " it would not be difficult to prove from internal evidence,
that the present translation 2 cannot be earlier than the end of the
fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century."
1 See the note.
2 Although 1. 25 says that the story of the Sowdan "is written in Romance,"
ALLUSION TO CHAUCERIAN VERSES CONTAINED IN THE 'SOWDONE.'
Having seen from the summary of grammatical peculiarities that
there is a great similarity between the language of Chaucer and that
of the composer of this romance, we might be inclined to consider
the latter as a contemporary of Chaucer. From some passages of the
fiowdan, which seem to contain allusions to Chaucerian poetry, we
may conclude that the poet must have known the Canterbury Tales.
Thus 11. 4246 :
" Whan kynde corage begynneth to pryke,
Whan ffrith and felde wexen gaye,
And every wight desirith his like,
Whan lovers slepen with opyn yje,
As Nightingales on grene tre "...
appear to be imitated from the Prologue of the Canterbury Tales,
" And smale fowles maken melodie.
That slepen al the night with open eye,
So priketh hem nature in her corages."
Further on we remark in 11. 939-40 :
" O thow, rede Mar} Armypotente,
That in the trende baye hase made J?y trone."
some traces of resemblance with the Knight? s Tale, 11. 1123-26 :
"And downward on a hill under a bent,
There stood the tempul of Mar^ armypotent.
Wrought al of burned steel, of which thentre
Was long and streyt, and gastly for to see,"
which may still be compared with the first lines of the Prologue of
Queen Amlida and False Arcite :
" Thou ferse God of armes, Mars the rede,
That in thy frosty centre called Trace,
Within thy grisly temples ful of drede,
Honoured art as patroun of that place." '
Now the Prologue of the Canterbury Tales and the Knight's Talc,
being written in couplets, or lines arranged in pairs, were certainly
composed after 1385, 2 or rather after 1389. 3 From the treatment of
this cannot induce us to consider our poem as a mere translation. . It is, on
the contrary, a free reproduction of a French original.
1 Cf. also Lindsay's History of Squyer Meldrum, 1. 390 :
" Like Mars the God Armypotent."
2 Cf. Prioress's Tale, ed. Skeat (Clarendon Press Series), p. xx ; and
Furnivall's Trial Forewords, p. 111.
3 Cf. Chaucer, ed. Morris, i. 205, footnote.
THE MS. OF THE 'SOWDONE.' xlvii
tlic final e's, which, contrary to Chaucer's usage, seem to have been
silent in a great number of cases in the poet's speech, we may further
conclude that the Sowdan must be somewhat later than the Canter-
bury Talcs. Therefore the poet of the Soivdan cannot have been
merely a later contemporary of Chaucer ; I rather think it to be more
probable that he must have lived some time after him. This would
bring us to the beginning of the fifteenth century as the date of the
As to the name and profession of the poet nothing is known, and
we have no clue whatever from the poem.
The present edition of the Soivdan is printed from the unique
m of the late Sir Thomas Phillips, at Middle Hill, Worcestershire,
which is now in the possession of the Kev. John E. A. Fenwick,
Thurlestane House, Cheltenham. Sir Thomas Phillips purchased the
MS. at Mr. Heber's sale. 1 The oldest possessor's name which we
find noted, is on the reverse of the last leaf of the Manuscript, where
is written, " This is John Eteyes (or Ebeye's) boke, witnes by John
Staff" in a hand circa temp. Eliz. or Jac. I. By some notes made
by former possessors on the first fly-leaf of the MS., and by the
autograph names which we find there, we learn that Geo. Steevens
bought the MS. "at Dr. Farmer's Sale, Friday June 15, 1798, for
1: 10. 0." On May 20th, 1800, it was "bought at the Sale of
Geo. Stevens, for 3. 4. 6." by " 0. Grah m Gilchrist."
A transcript of the MS. made by Geo. Stevens had been pre-
sented by him to Mr. Douce. This copy was re-transcribed by Geo.
Ellis, who, in 1811, published some extracts with an analysis of the
romance in the Specimens of Early En<ilish Metrical Romances? The
same copy has been followed by Halliwell, who in his Dictionary
of Arch, and Prov. W., has several quotations 3 from the present
romance, which he styles as "MS. Douce, 175."
1 Billiotlieca Ifcberiana, Part xi. p. 162. MSS. Lot 1533.
2 Ed. Halliwell, p. 379 et seq.
5 For instances, see the following words : Atamc. alayned, amoved,
assorte, avente, forcer, &c.
THE ROXBURGHE CLUB AND THE PRESENT EDITION.
The poem of the Sowdan was first printed by the Roxburghe
Club in 1854. 1 The text of the present edition differs from that of the
editio princeps in so far as punctuation is introduced, which is alto-
gether disregarded by the MS. and the Roxburghe Club edition. In
some passages words which have been written as one in the MS. are
separated in the text; thus a laye, 1. 2694 ; a ras, 1. 645, are printed
instead of alaye, aras. Sometimes also words written separately in
the MS. are united by a hyphen, as be-falle, 14 ; i-wiss, 71 ; i-sought,
725; with-oute, 841; a-bide, 818; a-ferde, 1337, &c. These slight
deviations from the MS., which are always indicated in the foot-
notes, seemed advisable on account of the great help they afford the
reader in understanding the text. More important emendations and
corrections of evident scribal blunders and other mistakes are given
in the foot-notes, and will be found explained in the Notes.
The Index of Names will be useful to those who wish to compare
the Sowdan with any other version of the romance.
The Glossarial Index contains besides the obsolete terms all those
words the spelling or the signification of which essentially differs
from that now accepted. Words which show only slight orthograph-
ical variations from their modern form have not been included, as the
reader will have no difficulty in identifying them.
In conclusion I have the pleasant duty of acknowledging the
invaluable assistance which Professor Zupitza at all times readily
and freely gave me. My best thanks are also due to Mr. Furnivall
and to Mr. Napier for their kind advice and suggestions, and to
Mr. Herrtage for collating a transcript of the poem with the MS.
Berlin, January, 1S81.
1 London. Printed by William Nicol, Shakspere Press, MDCCCLIV.
SINCE the Introduction was written, I have had an opportunity of
seeing the Hanover MS. of the French Fierdbras. The kind offices
of Professor Koner exerted on my behalf secured me the consent of
the Administration of the Royal Hanoverian Library to have the
MS. sent to Berlin, and their most generous permission to consult it
freely in the Reading Room of the University Library.
Haying now compared the Sowdan more closely with the Hanover
MS., I must state that the final result arrived at in my investigation
concerning the original of the Sowdan (cf. p. xxxii) is in no way
As already stated above (p. xxxii), and as the subsequent
examination and the passages of H quoted below will serve to
confirm, the Hanover version is, generally speaking, the same as the
printed version of the Fierabras, differing only in slight variations of
The names in which S differs from F, but agrees with H, are
already spoken of on p. xxxi. But there are several others in the
spelling of which H agrees with F, but differs from S. Thus we
find Balans or Balant in H for Lalan in S ; Gfuarin, H, leaf 80,
back, F 438 = Generyse, S 1135 ; Agolafres, H, leaf 81 = Alagolofer,
S 2135 ; Amiotte, H, leaf 83, back = BarroWc, S 2939, etc.
As to the subject-matter, there are no instances where S, differing
from F, agrees with H. In all points in which S differs from F we
find it also differing from H.
Thus the game of blowing a burning coal, in the description of
1 Til K HANOVER MS.
which S slightly differs from F, is related in // \vith nearly the same
words as in F. As, besides the small fragment printed by Groeber in
the Jalirbuch, xiii, and some few remarks in the Zeitsclirift fur
rom. P/iiL, nothing is known of the Hanover MS., the following
passages printed here may serve to show how little H differs from
F. The game of the coal (S 19962016, F 29072934) is thus
described in H, leaf 58 :
" Veillard, dist Lucafer, vow.? m eavez juer,
Vows ne savez en France le grani charboun soffler.
Certes, ceo dist li dus, mais n'en oie soffler. .
Et respont li payen : Mais te feray mostrer.
Ly payen vait le due au grant fowel mener.
Qwrtnt Rollant 1'ad veu, a Berard 1'ad mostre
Ore p0rres boue jeu ver et esgarder.
Dahait qui ne laira ly et Naimes juer.
Lucafer se beysa pur un tison combrer,
Trestote le plus ardant quil i poet trover,
Par tiel air soffla le fu qil li fist voler.
Puis ad dist a Names ' Ore vows covent soffler.'
Names prist le tison qui bien se sout aider,
Vers le payen s'en va pur le tison sofler.
Pur ceo le fist ly dus qa ly se volt meller,
Si suffla le tison qe le fist allumer,
Le barbe et le menton fist au payen bruler,
Tres parmy le visaie en fist la flame virer,
Qe par un sule petite qe nel fist souuiler.
Q?/nt le voit ly payen, le sane quida deueher.
II jette a .ij. ses maines, qi le quide frapper,
Mais ly dus le ferry tres parmy le costes,
Qe les oilz de la teste ly fist en fu voler.
Puys 1'ad pris par le flank, s'il voit en le fu ruer.
Lichiers, dist dus Names, Dex te poet mal doner,
Tu me quidoies ore come fole cy trover."
The distribution of the relics, in which S (cf. note to 1. 3238)
differs from J* 7 6195 et seq. is related as follows in //, leaf 100 :
" A U baron seint Dynis fu mult grant I'assemblee
J\ Au perron au londy fu la messe chanter,
Illok fu la corone partie et desseveree,
L'un moite fu a saint Dynis donee
Et un clow ansiemewt, cest verite proves,
De la Corone fu un partie a Ais porte/9,
A Compaigne est 1'ensigne en 1'eglise honored,
Et les altres .ij. clowes a Orliens fu enveietf,
Maint present fist Charls de France la loie
Des saintisme reliqes. Jh&m de maiestes.
En 1'onur de Deu est mainte eglise fonder,
La feste de lendit fu pur iceo estoree.
Jaiaz videront cens ne taille donee.
THE 'SOWDAN AND THE HANOVER MS. Jl
Ne tardoit que .iiij. ans k'Espaigne fu gastef.
La fu la treison de Eollant porpensee,
Qe Ganes le vendist a la gent diffaee,
Puys fu as chiuals sa chars destreinetf,
Pinables en fu mortz de suz Lyons en la pre<?,
La le vengea Terris au trenchant del espee,
Puys fu pendu armes par gulee pare<?,
Toutz iours vegnent traitors a mal destined
Ou aloignee ou apres ia ni aueront duree.
Charles voit a Orliens, la chancheon est fine*?
Au deu vous commande, tote j'ai ma chancon fine.
De eels romance est bone la line et l'entre<?,
Et en mileue et partote qi bien 1'ad escoutec
La beneiceon aez de Deu et del vw'gine honore. Amen."
The miracle (F 6101 6123) 1 of the glove, in which Charles had
placed fragments of the thorns, remaining suspended in the air for over
an hour, the description of which is omitted in the Sowdan (cf.
Dissert., p. 29), is related as follows in H, leaf 99 :
" T 'EMP.&HERS de France fist forement a loier
_I_J II a fait un table sur .ij. trestes lever^
Et par de sur un paille qui fu fait outre mer.
Illok fist Charlna la corone aporter,
Puis ad fait 1' arcevesqe pa/'tir et deviser,
Si ad fait les reliqes mult bien envoluper,
Dedens son mestre coffres les a fait deffermer,
Et les altres reliqes qe il voudra aporter.
Les petites espignons qil vist esgruner,
De la saint corone qil fist demenbrer,
Trestote les acoillye nostre emp^rer ber,
Et les mist en son gant qanqil pout trover.
Un chivaler le tent qil vist lez ly ester,
Mais al ne 1'aperceut my qe nele oit parler.
Charlemayn retiret sa mayne, si lesse le gant aler.
Et dex a fait le gant enmy 1'air arester
Tant que d .j. leue en pout home bien aler ;
Kar la presse fu grant, ne Ten puis remenbrer.
Charlemayn comande 1'ewe apporter.
De son gant ly sovengre si quant il dust laver,
Mais ne sect a ky le comanda abailier,
Par desur la gent le vist en 1'air esteer,
L'arcevesqe la monstre et tuit 1'altre barne.
Ceo fu mult grant merveille, home en doit bien purler,
Charls a pris son gant, s'est assis au soper."
//, leaf 37, agrees with F, 1. 1043, in making Oliver drink of the
bottles of balm, which is not mentioned in the Sowdan, \. 1190
(cf. p. xxix).
1 Cf. Sir Ferumbras, 185/5988.
Hi THE ORIGINAL OF THE ' SOWDAN.'
Similarly we find S 2604 differing from //, leaf 62, where we
read Basyns ( = Basin, F 3313) instead of Bryer.
Again H, 1. 40, agreeing exactly with F, 1. 1329 et seq., differs
from S 1279-82 (cf. p. xxix).
Instead of Floripas, S 1515, it is Brulans, //, 1. 49, and F 1949,
who advises the Soudan not to slay the prisoners.
The names of the twelve peers are the same in H as in F (cf. p.
xxvii) ; and the whole scene of the peers being sent one after the
other on a mission to Laban (cf. note to 1. 1665 of the Sowdan) is
described exactly alike in F 2263 2282 and in H, leaf 51, back, with
the only difference that the names of the peers are given in a
different order in both versions, Richard of Normandy, who is sent
off as the sixth in F, being the second in H.
These variations of S from H clearly exemplify the impossibility
of regarding the Hanover MS. as the original of the Sowdan. But
as on the whole these differences are not of a very significant nature,
and as, moreover, part of these variations may perhaps be attributed
to the favourite habit of the author of going his own way in the
arrangement of the subject-matter and in some minor points, whereas
in the essential course of the events he strictly adhered to his source
(see above p. xxxviii, and cf. note to 1. 2535) ; and as besides there
are several names, the spelling of which differs in F, agreeing in S
and If, I think there can be no doubt that the original of the second
part of the Sowdan was a version similar to the Hanover MS.
If now we compare the Hanover version with the Ashmole
Ferutnbras more closely than has been possible on page xx, there
are some instances where A, whilst differing from .F, agrees with H.
If. 27. Ha Glout, dist Karlemaines, 163. A glotoun, saide \>e Emperer
If. 27. Que puis vivre que cest jours 175. Ke It/ve he no^t Jjys day to be
fu passes evene
If. 25, bk. Ses chiuals ad reine a un 91. par to ys stede f>an tyej?e he
Et garda les leges tote contreval
Nevertheless, the following passage in which A agrees with F t
but differs from JET, will at once show the impossibility of regarding
// as the original of A.
THE ASHMOLEAN VERSION AND THE HANOVER MS. liii
302. panne J?er come bifore Charloun, If. 28, bk. Atant se sunt drecie
Gweneloun and Hardree, Guinelons et Alores
In other instances A is found differing from H as well as from F.
Thus the name of Enfaclwun, A 4652, which is Effraons in F 4900,
does not occur at all in H, which in the passage corresponding to F
4900, as well as in that corresponding to .F4913, reads A/ricons U
Again, in the story of Myloun, in which A, L 2008 et seq., differs
from F t we find H disagreeing from F, 2734 et seq., and from A :
" Volez vous queer de feme essaier et esprover
Del riche due Milon vow,? deverez remenbrer,
Qe tant nori Galans qe ly fist adouber,
Puys ly tolly sa feile Gabaen au vis cler,
L'enfes Marsilion en fist desherriter.
Quant 1'entent Floripas, du sens quida deueer." (ff, leaf 56.)
But in most cases in which F differs from A, If agrees with F.
Thus we find Ferumbras challenging only six French knights in
H, If. 26, as in F, 84, 105, instead of twelve in A, 1. 102.
In A, 1. 5204, Floripas, swooning away, is upheld by Oliver,
whereas in F, 5373, and in H, If. 90, it is Guy who keeps her from
For Howel of saint Miloitn, A 5574, we read Huon de saint Lis
in F 5792, and Hugon de saint Lis in H, If. 95, bk.
As in -F 2912 it is to Berard that Eoland speaks in H, If. 57, bk.,
and not to Olyver, as in A 2234.
That Maubyn scales the walls by means of a ladder of leather
(A 2406) is not mentioned in F 3061, nor in H, If. 59, bk.
In .4 1386 Floripas gives Oliver, who is wounded, a warm draught,
which heals every wound ; in F 2209, as well as in ff, If. 51, it is by
a bit of the mandrake plant that he is heajecj.
The maid-attendant mentioned in A 1238 (chaniberere) is a man-
attendant in F 2083 (chamberlenc) and in H, If. 49, bk. (ckamler-
There is no trace of the additional lines of A, 11. 48674875, to
be found in H, If. 86 bk., nor in F, 5094.
Among the relics spoken of in A, there is nowhere a mention
made of the signe. In H we find the signe always mentioned
CHARL. ROM. V. 6
Hv THE ORIGINAL OF THE ASHMOLE * FERUMBRAS.'
together with the crown and the nails, just as in F. In the passage
quoted above from H, If. 100, and in the line which corresponds to
F 6094, we find ensigne instead of signe ; but ensigne certainly must
be looked upon as a clerical blunder. In the other passages in which
we find " the winding sheet, or shroud, of the Lord " mentioned in H
it is also called signe :
"Et rendrai la corone et le signe honore."
H, If. 42 = F, 1498 ; and H, If. 45, bk. = F, 1805.
" Et lea saintismes clowes et le signe honores." H, If. 57 = F, 2829.
That the signe cannot be the "inscription of the cross" (cf.
Introduction, p. xxx) is proved by an additional line of the Hanover
MS., in which the Archbishop is said to have covered the heads of
the French with the signe :
" Puys a trait 1'ensigne qui bien estoit ovres
Engenolant 1'ad ly Eois tote oue lermes baises,
Plus flairoit ducement que basine enbasinea.
Quant Franceis 1'ont veu, ele vous effraes,
De pite et de ioy fu chescous enplores.
L'erceresqe le prist, mult fu bieu purpenses,
Et nos Franceis en a les chefs envolupes,
Puis le mist sur le paille qest a or ornes,
Od les altres relikes dont illi out asses."
H, If. 98, corresponding to F, 6094 et seq.
Abstaining now from citing any more passages where H agrees
with F, but differs from A, I think the few quotations above will
suffice to show the impossibility of regarding the Hanover MS. as
the original of the Ashmole Ferumbras, notwithstanding that there
are some resemblances of A to H (cf. p. xx). Therefore the result
arrived at on p. xxi as to the original of the Ashmolean version is in
no way altered by the detailed comparison of A with H.
SKETCH OF THE STORY.
Laban, the Soudan of Babylon, who was residing at Agremore in
Spain, went to the chase in a wood near the sea (p. 2). Being tired
of hunting he sat down under a tree, and, perceiving a ship drawing
near unto the shore, he sent one of his men to hail the vessel and to
inquire for news. The interpreter of the vessel informs the soudan
that the ship, freighted with a rich cargo at Babylon designed as a
SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON. v
present to Laban, had been driven by violent storms to the shore
near Eome, where the ship had been robbed, and many of its people
had been slain by the Eomans. He solicits the Soudan to revenge
this insult. Laban promises to make them pay dearly for it (p. 3).
He convokes a war-council, and assembles a hundred thousand men
and seven hundred sail. Himself goes, with Ferumbras his son and
Floripas his daughter, in a dromond richly adorned (p. 4). They dis-
embark in the haven of Rome, slay all Christians, and burn towns,
abbeys, and churches. The pope of Eome assembles his council (p. 5).
Duke Savaris is to meet the Saracens. With ten thousand men he
draws near the Soudan's pavilion on the shore (p. 6) ; they slay ten
thousand Saracens. The Eomans, though masters of the field,
cautiously retire within the walls of the city. Lukafer of Baldas,
having scoured the country, brings ten thousand Christian maidens
to the Soudan, who orders them to be put to death (p. 7). Lukafer
demands Floripas for his wife, in return for which he promises her
father to bring Charlemagne and his twelve peers to the foot of his
throne. Floripas agrees to accept him when he has fulfilled his
promise. The next morning Lukafer assaults the city, but the
ditches being too deep (p. 8), the Saracens are obliged to retire.
On the following day the assault is renewed, the ditches are, on
Mavon's advice, filled with faggots. After a sharp conflict, where
there were ten thousand Saracens slain by the stones of the Eomans,
the heathens are obliged to withdraw (p. 9). This second repulse
makes the Soudan almost mad with vexation ; he chides his gods.
But Lukafer told him that he had learned from a spy that Savaris
would, on the following day, come out again to fight with them. He
now intended, when Savaris was engaged in the battle, to unfold a
banner made exactly like that of the Eomans, and to attempt, by this
stratagem, to be admitted within the gates. And so it turned out :
the Eomans mistaking him for Savaris returning from his sally, he
entered the main tower, and slew all therein. Savaris, noticing the
artifice of the enemy, and seeing his troop reduced to seventy-two
men, turned back, but found the gate shut (p. 10). Estragot, a
black giant of Ethiopia, slays him with his steel-mace. The Pope
having summoned his council, a senator suggested the necessity of
Ivi SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON.
sending messengers to Charlemagne to ask his aid. They all assented,
and three messengers (p. 11) left the city by a postern at midnight;
they passed the enemy's camp without being noticed by any wight.
On the next morning Laban attempted a third assault; he commanded
every man to throw pikes and bills over the walls to kill the
Eomans, and ordered the ships to go up the water with their boats
bound to the mast, that they might fight in close combat. Near the
tower there stood a bulwark, or " bastile," which was a strong defence
to the wall. It was thrown down by stones hurled from an engine.
Laban, growing proud from this event, summoned the Eomans to
surrender. Instead of an answer a Roman hurled a dart at his
breast-plate, but his hauberk shielded him. The Soudan, more than
mad, charged Ferumbras to destroy them all (p. 12), and enjoined
Fortibrance and Mavon to direct their engines against the walls.
The great glutton Estragot, with his heavy mace, smote on the gates
and brake them in pieces. But as he was entering one of the gates,
they let the portcullis fall, which crushed him to the ground, where
he lay crying like a devil of hell. The Romans rejoiced, but the
Saracens grieved. They withdrew to their tents, leaving behind the
corpse of Estragot, whose soul went up to Mahound (p. 13). The
Pope called all his people to St. Eeter's and proposed to them to
attempt a sally with twenty thousand men, to attack the enemy
before day-break within their camp, and to leave ten thousand for
the defence of the city. In the morning the Eope displayed the
banner of Rome, and after a prayer for the preservation of the city,
they inarched out. But Eerumbras, going his rounds (p. 14), noticed
their coming, sounded the alarm, and drew up his troops. Then
began a fierce struggle. Ferumbras slew Sir Bryer of Apulia (p. 15)
and the worthy Hubert. Nine thousand heathens were killed and
eight thousand Romans. Lukafer destroyed eighteen Romans; he
also slew Gyndard, a senator of Rome, who had killed ten Saracens.
Then came the Pope with a great escort and his banner before him.
Ferumbras, supposing him to be the sovereign (p. 16), burst open the
thick crowd and threw him down to the ground. But having
opened his ventail, he saw his tonsure, and recognized the Pope.
" Fie, priest," he said, " what doest thou here in the battle-field 1
SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON. Ivil
It would be a shame for me to slay thee. Go home and think of
thy choir-service." The Pope, being glad to get off so easily, retired
to Eome with five thousand men, fifteen thousand being killed.
Charlemagne, having learned from the messenger the great disaster
which had befallen the Eomans, said he would not desist until he
had chased the Soudan and Ferumbras out of Christendom (p. 17).
He gave ten thousand pounds of francs to his nephew, Guy of
Burgundy, and sent him off with orders to advance against the
Soudan by forced marches. Himself would follow as soon as possible.
Iri the mean time Laban reminded Lukafer of his vaunting promise
to bring him Charlemagne and his twelve peers in return for his
daughter Floripas. Lukafer said he would do all he had promised.
With ten thousand men he attacked the city on one side, the other
being assaulted by Ferumbras. The combat continued as long as
daylight lasted. At night they retired to their tents (p. 18). Then
treason was planned by Isres, who by inheritance possessed the guard
of the chief gate of the town. He went to the Soudan and offered
to betray the city on condition that his life and property should be
spared. The Soudan promised it. Ferumbras with twenty thousand
men went with Tsres, but on entering the gate he caused the traitor's
head to be struck off by the portcullis and to be carried on the point
of a spear through the city. " Treason," cried the people (p. 19), when
Ferumbras advanced into Rome. All the streets were soon covered
with dead men. Ferumbras went to St. Peter's, seized the relics, the
cross, the crown, and the nails, burned the whole city, and carried
away all the treasures and the gold to Agremore in Spain, where the
Soudan went back to stay. Three months and three days they spent
there in great festivities, making offerings to their gods, and burning
frankincense in their honour. They drank the blood of beasts and
milk, and ate honey, and snakes fried with oil (p. 20). When Sir
Guy, approaching, drew near Rome, he found the whole city in
flames. He grieved much that he had arrived too late, and resolved
to wait there for Charlemagne, and then to tell him how Laban had
burnt the city, and had sent the relics to Agremore, his principal town
in Spain. Soon king Charles advanced to rescue Rome with his
twelve peers and three hundred thousand soldiers (p. 21). Roland
Iviii SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON.
led the vanguard, Oliver the rear, and the king was with the main
body. The provisions were conveyed by sea. Guy, seeing the army
come, went to meet the king, and told him the mischief done by the
Soudan, who, moreover, had made a vow to seek Charles in France in
order to afflict him with grief. "He will find me near," said
Charles, " and shall pay dearly for it. Unless he consents to be
baptized (p. 22), he shall never see Babylon again." They all took
ship without delay. Propitious winds drove them into the river
Gase, where they landed, thirty miles from Agremore, and laid waste
the country. Laban, hearing this news, was astonished at Charles's
presumption (p. 23). He assembled all his barons, and charged them
to bring him alive that glutton that called himself king of France,
and to slay the rest of his army. Ferumbras went forth with many
Saracens. He meets with Roland. They deal each other heavy strokes.
Oliver cuts off a quarter of Lukafer's shield. The combat lasted
the whole day. Well fought the twelve peers (p. 24). Ferumbras
charges Oliver. King Charles, seeing this, rides at Ferumbras, and
strikes his helm with a heavy mace. Ferumbras cannot approach
him on account of the crowd. Charlemagne slew thirty Saracens
with his sword Mounjoy. Lukafer of Baldas encountering Charles
told him that he had promised the Soudan to bring him Charles and
the twelve peers. Charles strikes him on his helmet (p. 25), but
Lukafer is rescued by a great throng. Roland, drawing Durnedale,
cleared a space around him, and hammered the heads of the Saracens.
So did the other peers, and thirty thousand Saracens were slain. At
night the pagans quit the field. Ferumbras vows never to desist
until he has conquered Roland and Oliver (p. 26) and been crowned
king at Paris. Charles went to his pavilion and thanked God
and St. Mary of France. He praised the elder knights for having
won the victory, and exhorted the young ones to take example by
them. They all make merry and go to supper. The Saracens
address a prayer to the red Mars Armipotent (p. 27), to grant the
Mahometans the victory over the Christians (p. 28). In order to
recruit the late losses in his army, the Soudan sent for his vassals,
and assembled more than three hundred thousand Saracens at
Agremore. He addressed them (p. 29) in order to increase their
SKETCH OP THIS STORY : THE SOWDAN OP BABYLON. llX
ardour, ordered a solemn sacrifice to his gods, and charged Ferumbras
to march with thirty thousand of his people against the Christian king
(whom he wished to teach courtesy), and to slay all his men except
Eoland and Oliver (p. 30), if they would renounce their gods.
Ferumbras led out his troops ; until arriving near Charles's camp, he
ordered them to halt in a wood, and advanced with only ten of his men
to the camp of Charlemagne, and offered to fight at once against six
of his peers. If he should conquer them, he would lead them away to
his father's hall ; but if he should be conquered, lie would be Charles's
man. The king sent for Roland and ordered him to undertake the
combat. Eoland refuses (p. 31), because Charles had praised the
old knights : they might show their prowess now. Charles, vexed,
smites Roland on the mouth, so that the blood springs from his nose,
and he calls him a traitor. Roland draws his sword, but the other
barons separate them and try to conciliate them. Meanwhile Oliver,
who being sorely wounded kept his bed, on hearing of this dispute,
had armed himself and went to Charles. He reminds the king of his
long services, in reward for which he demands the battle. Charles
remonstrates with him. But Oliver insists (p. 32). He rides to the
forest, and finds Ferumbras alighted under a tree, to a branch of
which his steed was tied. " Arise," he said, " I am come to fight
withthee." Ferumbras, without moving, demands his name. "lam
Generyse, a young knight lately dubbed. " Ferumbras observes :
" Charles is a fool to send thee ; go and tell him to send me Roland
and Oliver and such four other douzeperes. For little honour were
it to me to fight with thee." " Spare thy words," replies Oliver,
"and take thy arms" (p. 33). Ferumbras is wrath and seizes his
helmet, which Oliver assists him to lace. Ferumbras thanks him,
courteously bowing to him. They mount their steeds, and rushing
together like fire of thunder, they have their lances broken. They
draw their swords. Ferumbras smites Oliver on his helmet so that
the fire flies. Oliver strikes at the head of Ferumbras, breaks away
the circle of his helmet, and the sword glancing off down his back,
he cuts off two bottles of balm (p. 34), which he throws into the
river. Ferumbras tells him that they were invaluable to a wounded
man, and. that he should atone for their loss with his life. He
IX SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON.
strikes at Oliver, who wards off the blow with his shield, but his steed
is killed under him. Oliver quickly starts up and tries to kill his
adversary's horse, but Ferumbras rides off and ties it to a hazel.
" Yield thyself to me," says Ferumbras, " believe on Mahound, and I
will make thee a duke in my country, and give thee my sister " (p. 35).
" Ere I yield to thee," answered Oliver, " thou shalt feel my strokes."
They fight for a considerable time ; the blood runs from both their
bodies. By mutual consent they stop to take breath. Ferumbras
again asks Oliver his name and kin. " Thou must be one of the
twelve peers, as thou fightest so well." "I am Oliver, cousin to
Charlemagne." "Thou art welcome here," says Ferumbras ; "thou
slewest my uncle (p. 36) ; now thou shalt pay the penalty." The
fight continued the whole day. At last Oliver, smiting Ferumbras
upon the helmet, had his sword broken. He ran to the steed at the
tree and seized a sword that was hanging there, but in turning on
Ferumbras, he received a blow that made him kneel down (p. 37).
But he returns Ferumbras a fearful stroke. Charles, seeing Oliver on
his knees, prayed to Christ that he might grant the victor}'' over the
pagan. An angel announced to him that his prayer was heard. Charles
thanks God (p. 38). The fight begins again. Ferumbras breaks
his sword on Oliver's helmet. He runs for another and asks Oliver
to surrender. But Oliver aims at him a blow which cuts his
hauberk, so that his bowels are laid bare. Ferumbras implores his
mercy, and consents to be christened, his gods having proved false.
He requested him to take his hauberk (p. 39), to fetch his horse,
and to carry him to his own tent. But the Saracens who lay
concealed in the wood rush out. Oliver, being surrounded, sets
down Ferumbras under an olive-tree, and defends himself with his
sword, dealing the Saracens many a hard blow. Then Roland
rushed into the throng of the enemy and slew many (p. 40). His
horse being killed by arrows and darts, he fights on foot, but his
sword breaking, he is taken and led away. Oliver rides to rescue
him, but his horse being also killed, he is overpowered and bound.
Both were conducted to Lukafer of Baldas (p. 41). Charles sees
them, and calls for a rescue. Many enemies were slain by the
French barons, but the Saracens had fled with their prisoners, and
SKETCH OF THE STORY ! THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON. Ixi
Charles is obliged to turn back. Under a holm tree they find
Ferumbras, whom the king is going to put to death. But on his
requesting to be baptized Charles took pity on him (p. 42), led him
to his tent, and ordered a surgeon to attend him. He soon recovered,
and bishop Turpin baptized him by the name of Floreyn. But he
continued to be called Ferumbras all his life. Afterwards he was
known as Floreyn of Rome on account of his holiness. Roland and
Oliver being brought to the Soudan, Laban enquires their names.
They confess their names (p. 43). The Soudan swears they shall
both be executed the next morning before his dinner. But Floripas
advises him to detain them as hostages, and to remember his son
Ferumbras, for whom they might be exchanged. The Soudan,
finding her counsel good, orders his gaoler Bretomayn to imprison
them, but to leave them without food (p. 44). At high tide the sen
filled their deep cells, so that they suffered much from the salt water,
from their wounds, and from hunger. On the sixth day Floripas,
who was gathering flowers in her garden, heard them lament. Moved
to compassion, she asks her governess Maragound to help her in
getting food for the prisoners. Maragound refuses, and reminds
Floripas of her father's command. Floripas, thinking of a trick,
called to her governess to come to a window (p. 45) and see the
porpoises sporting beneath. As Maragound is looking out, Floripas
pushes her into the flood. She then asks Bretomayn to let her see
the prisoners. The gaoler threatened to complain to her father, but
Floripas, having seized his key-clog, dashed out his brains. She then
went to tell her father she had surprised the gaoler feeding the
prisoners (p. 46) and promising to deliver them, wherefore she had
slain him. The Soudan gives the prisoners into her guard. She
now proceeded to the prison, asked the prisoners what they wanted,
and promised to protect them from any harm (p. 47). She let down
a rope, and with her maidens drew up both, and led them to her
apartments. There they ate, took a bath, and went to bed. The
Soudan knew nothing of his prisoners being in Floripas's chamber.
Meanwhile Charlemagne tells Guy that he must go to the Soudan to
demand the surrender of Roland and Oliver, and of the relics of
Rome Naymes of Bavaria represents that a messenger to the Soudan
Ixil SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OP BABYLON.
(p. 48) would certainly be slain ; and that they ought to be anxious
not to lose any more besides Roland and Oliver. Then said the
king : " By God, thou shalt go with Guy." Ogier the Dane remon-
strates, but is ordered to go too. So are Thierry of Ardane, and Folk
Baliant, Aleroys, and Miron of Brabant. Bishop Turpin kneels down
to implore the king's mercy, but he must go too, as well as Bernard
of Spruwse (p. 49) and Brier of Mountdidier. The knights take leave
and start. About the same time the Soudan having assembled
his council, Sortibrance and Brouland (p. 50) advise him to send
twelve knights, and to bid Charles to give up Ferumbras and to
withdraw from his country. The knights are despatched ; near
Mantrible they meet with the Christian messengers. Duke JSTaymes
enquires whither they intend to go (p. 51). Having heard their
message, the delegates of Charlemagne cut off their heads, which
they take with them to present to the Soudan at Agremore. Laban
was just dining when Naymes delivers his message : " God confound
Laban and all his Saracens, and save Charles, who commands thee
to send back his two nephews and to restore the relics " (p. 52). They
then produce the heads of the Soudan's messengers. The Soudan
vowed a vow that they should all ten be hanged as soon as he had
finished his dinner. But Floripas recommended him to put off his
resolution until a general council of his barons had determined on
the best way to procure the liberation of Ferumbras. Thereupon the
Soudan gives the prisoners into her guard. Floripas leads the knights
into her tower (p. 53), where they were glad to find Roland and
Oliver. They told each other how they had fared. After washing, they
dined off venison, bread, and wine. The following day Floripas asks
Naymes his name, and enquires after Guy of Burgundy, whom she
had loved for a long time (p. 54), and for whom she would do all
she could for their benefit, and would be baptized if he would
agree to love her in return. Naymes tells Guy to take her for his
wife ; but Guy refuses, as he never will take a wife unless she be
given him by Charles. But Roland and Oliver persuade him, so
that he at last consents. Floripas, holding a golden cup of wine
(p. 55), kissed him, and requested him to drink to her after the fashion
of her country ; she then would drink to him in return. They all
SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON. Ixiti
make merry, and prepare to assail the Soudan at supper on the follow
ing day. Meanwhile Lukafer comes to the Soudan and asks leave
to see the prisoners, in order to know how Floripas guards them.
Finding the door locked (p. 56), he burst it open with a blow of his
fist, and told them he was come to speak to them, and to enquire
after Charlemagne. Duke Naymes answers. Lukafer then asks what
amusements they have after dinner. Naymes says : " Some joust,
some sing, some play at chess." " I will teach you a new game," says
Lukafer (p. 57). With a thread he fastened a needle on a pole and
put a burning coal upon it. He blew it at Naymes's beard and burnt
it. Naymes waxed wroth, and snatching a burning brand from the
fire he smites at Lukafer, and throws him into the fire, where he was
burnt to charcoal. Floripas applauds this, but points out their
danger, and advises them to arm. At supper time she goes to her
father (p. 58). As they were sitting at table, the twelve peers
rushed in and slew all whom they met. Laban, pursued by Oliver,
jumps out of a window on to the sea-shore and escaped without
injury. They killed all in the castle, and then drew up the bridges
and shut the gates. Laban vowed a vow that he would hang them
all and 'burn his daughter. He sent to Mantrible for troops (p. 59)
and engines and besieged Agremore. Floripas recommends the peers
to enjoy themselves. In the morning the Soudan attacks the castle,
but is repulsed (p. 60). He accuses his gods of sleepiness and shakes
them to rouse them out of sleep. Brouland tells him, as the castle is
strong and well stored with provisions, the peers will hold it very
long ; but if he would send orders to Alagolofer, the bridge-keeper
at Mantrible, not to allow any one to pass without leave (p. 61), they
would get no assistance from Charles and die from hunger. Espiard,
the Soudan's messenger, is despatched to Mantrible, and commands
the giant not to suffer any one to pass the bridge (p. 62). Alagolofer
drew four and twenty chains across the bridge. Meanwhile the
Soudan assaults the castle again, but the twelve peers slew three
hundred Saracens (p. 63). Laban threatens to hang them, and
utters imprecations against Floripas, who returns them. He then
calls for Mavon, his engineer, and orders him to direct a mangonel
against the walls. Mavon knocked down a piece of the battlements.
Ixiv SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON.
Roland and Oliver lament; they are comforted by Floripas (p. 64).
Guy kills Marsedage, the king of Barbary, by throwing a dart at
him. The Saracens stop the attack to bury Marsedage, and bewail
him seven nights and seven days. Then the Soudan more closely
blockades the castle (p. 65). The provisions being exhausted,
Eoland complains of Charles's forgetfulness ; but Floripas cheers him
up, saying she possessed a magic girdle, which was a talisman against
hunger and thirst for those who wore it. They all successively put
it on, and felt as if they had feasted (p. 66). Laban wondered at
their endurance, but at last remembering the girdle, he induced
Mapin to attempt to steal it at night. Mapin entered the chamber
of Floripas (p. 67) through a chimney. He finds the girdle and puts
it on, but Floripas perceives him and cries out. Eoland hurries to
her assistance, cuts off Mapin's head, and throws him out through
the window into the sea without noticing the girdle. Floripas, seeing
her girdle lost, is much grieved ; Roland comforts her. They agree
to attempt a sally to obtain food (p. 68). In the morning Naymes
and Ogier remain in the castle, while the others start and surprise
the Saracens sleeping in their huts. They slew three hundred, and
carried off as much food as they could bear (p. 69). The Soudan is
enraged and is going to burn his gods, but, appeased by his wise men,
he sacrifices again, and is assoiled by the priests. Laban holds
council (p. 70). A new assault begins, but so many of the assailants
were slain by the showers of stones hurled down by the peers that
the ditches are filled with dead bodies. The Saracens retire. But
soon a second attack ensues. There being no stones, Floripas gave
them her father's silver and gold to cast amongst the assailants. The
Soudan in alarm for his treasure gives up the assault (p. 71). He is
enraged with his gods, and smites Mahound so that he fell on his
face ; but the priests induce him to kneel down and ask forgiveness
(p. 72). Meanwhile Roland exhorted Richard of Normandy to go
on a message to Charles, that he might come to their rescue. They
all would, the following morning before day-break, make an attack
on the Saracens, and meanwhile he should steal off in the darkness.
In the morning they sally out. Floripas and her maidens draw up
the bridges after them. Richard went off towards Mantrible (p. 73).
SKETCH OP THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OP BABYLON. xV
The others slay many Saracens ; but Guy, overpowered by the
Babylonians, is taken prisoner. Laban asks his name. Guy tells
him. He is to be hanged. Three hundred Saracens crowding near
the gate of the castle, attempted to prevent the other peers from
entering. A fearful struggle begins (p. 74), in which Sir Bryer is
killed. At last the Saracens take to flight. The peers retire inside
the castle, taking the corpse of Bryer with them. Floripas enquires
after Guy, and on hearing of his capture, begins to lament despair-
ingly. Eoland promises to rescue Guy (p. 75). On the following
morning Laban orders Sir Tamper to erect a gallows before the
castle, where Floripas could see it. Guy is led bound. Roland
calls his companions to arms. They rush forth (p. 76). Oliver
cuts down Sir Tamper, Roland kills a king of India, takes his sword
and horse, and gives them to Guy, having unbound him. They slay
many Saracens, and put the rest to flight. Retiring towards the
castle, they see Admiral Costroye, and the Soudan's standard-bearer,
escorting a great convoy, destined for the sultan, across a field near
the high road (p. 77). Roland calls to them to share the provisions
with them. Costroye refuses, and is slain by Roland. Oliver kills
the standard-bearer, and the convoy is conveyed into the castle (p. 78).
Floripas thanks Roland for bringing back Sir Guy, and proposes
that he shall choose himself a mistress from amongst her maidens.
But Roland refuses to take any that is not a Christian. The Soudan,
on hearing such bad news, again defies his gods, and threatens to
throw them into the flames (p. 79). But bishop Cramadas kneels
before him and appeases him. The Soudan makes an offering of a
thousand besants to his gods. When Richard arrived as far as
Mantrible, he found the bridge barred by twenty-four chains, and
Alagolofer standing before it. Determined not to leave his errand
unperformed, he knelt down and commended himself to God. A
hind appears (p. 80) and swims across the river ; Richard follows
her, and passing over in safety, hurries on to Charlemagne. Mean-
while Genelyn, the traitor, had advised Charles to retire to France,
because the twelve peers were all slain. The king believed him, and
marched homeward, lamenting for his peers. Richard overtakes
him. and is recognized by Charles, who asks him about the others.
Ixvi SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON.
Richard tells the king how they are besieged within the castle of
Agremore, and are waiting for his assistance. Charles, vowing
vengeance on Genelyn (p. 81), turned and marched to Agremore.
Richard informed him of the giant who kept the bridge, and how
he had passed the river by a miracle. He proposed a plan that
twelve knights, disguised as merchants, with their arms hidden
under their clothes, should pay the toll, and the bridge being let
down, they should blow a horn as a signal for the others to approach.
They start and arrive at Mantrible (p. 82). Alagolofer asks whither
they are going. Richard says they are merchants on their way to
the Soudan, and they are willing to pay the toll. Alagolofer refuses
to let them pass, and tells them about the ten knights, who had
passed there and done so much mischief to the Soudan ; therefore
he will arrest them all. Sir Focard draws his sword and smites at
him, Richard blows his horn, and Charles advances (p. 83). Alago-
lofer fights them with a great oak club. Richard seizes a bar of brass
and knocks him down. Four men get hold of him and throw him
into the river. They loosened the chains; but the Saracens assembling
on the walls of the city, many Christians were slain. Alagolofer's
wife, Barrock the giantess, comes on with her scythe and mows
down all whom she meets. Charles dashes out her brains (p. 84),
and with fifteen knights enters the outer gate of the town, thinking
his army would follow him. But the gate was instantly closed upon
him, and his men came too late. Charles was in great danger ; but
Genelyn, seeing him shut in, exclaimed that the king and the twelve
peers were dead, and proposed to retire, as he wished to be king
himself. They were going to return, but Ferumbras (p. 85) calls
him a traitor ; he rallies the French, and with his axe bursts open
the gate. He chased the Saracens and rescued the king. Mantrible
is taken with all its engines and treasures. Richard found two
children of seven months old (p. 86), and four feet high. They
were sons of Barrock, begotten by Astragot. Charles caused them
to be baptized, and called the one Roland and the other Oliver. But
they soon died for want of their mother's milk The king appoints
Richard governor of the city, and hurries on to Agremore with his
army and with Ferumbras (p. 87). Laban, being told by a spy
SKETCH OF THE STORY : THE SOWDAN OF BABYLON. Ixvii
that his city was taken and the bridge-ward killed, swears to avenge
him. He calls a council, and charges his barons to take Charles
alive that he might flay him. Charles approaches. Floripas first
recognizes the banner of France and tells the others (p. 88). Roland
and all his companions sally forth to meet Charlemagne. Laban
draws up all his people in battle-order. The French make a great
slaughter of the Saracens. Charles encounters the Soudan ; he
unhorses him, and would have cut off his head, but for Ferumbras,
who requested that his father might be baptized. The Saracens,
seeing Laban a prisoner, fly; but the Christians pursue them.
Three hundred escaped to Belmarine. Charles leads Laban to
Agremore. Floripas welcomes her father (p. 89), but he is enraged
at seeing her. She then bids Charlemagne welcome, and presents
the holy relics to him. Charles kisses them, and says a prayer ; he
then thanks Floripas for her assistance to his knights, and for having
preserved the precious relics. He orders Turpin to prepare a vessel
wherein to baptize the Soudan, and to wash off his sin in the water
(p. 90). Turpin leads Laban to the font, but the Soudan strikes at
him, spits on the vessel, utters invectives against all Christians, and
curses Ferumbras. Charles commands Naymes to cut off his head.
He is executed ; his soul goes to hell, there to dance with devils.
Floripas was baptized with all her maidens, and was wedded to Guy.
Charles divided Spain between Guy and Ferumbras (p. 91), and charges
Sir Bryer of Bretayne to take care of the relics, and to bring all his
treasure to Paris. After taking leave of Guy and Floripas, Charles
sails to Monpilier, where he thanks God for the victory (p. 92), and
for the relics. He presents the cross to Paris, the crown to St. Denis,
the three nails to Boulogne. Charles well remembered the treachery
of Genelyn, and ordered him to be drawn and hanged at Montfaucon
in Paris (p. 93).
Eomaunce of tfje Sofotione of Bafcglone
anfc of Jtrumbras jjts <Sone tofjo
Conquered i&ome :
From the unique MS. of the late Sir Thos. Phillipps.
/""NJ Od in glorye of myghteste * moost,
a That al thinge made in sapience
I .By ver_tue of woorde and holy goost,
Gyvinge to man grete excellence,
V-xl And alle, fat is in erthe, wroght
Subiecte to man and man to the,
That he shoulde with herte and thought
To loue and serve, and nooii) but the :
For }yfe man kepte thy commaundemente
In al thinge and loued the welle
And hadde synnede in his entente,
Than) shulde he fully thy grace fele ;
But for the offences to God I-doow?
Many vengeaunces haue be-falle.
Where-of I wole you) telle of oon),
It were to mocfi. to telle of alle.
While fat Eome was in excellence
Of alle Realmes in dignite,
And howe it felle for his offence,
Listinythe a while and ye shal see,
Howe it was wonen) and brente
Of a Sowdon), that heathen) was,
And for synne howe it was shente ;
As Kinge Lowes witnessith fat cas,
1 Read : myglites 2 MS. doo
CHARL. ROM. V. B
1 God has ordained
all things wisely.
He has subjected
the earth to man,
and man to God.
The man who
keeps His com-
loves Him well,
will feel His
But many who
have felt His
I will tell you of
one ; it would
take too long to
tell of all.
Listen to me, and
ye shall hear how
Rome, the former
mistress of all
nations, came to
fall by its sins,
and was destroyed
by a heathen
King Lewis has
borne witness to
LABAN, THE SOUDAN OF BABYLON, HEARS
that story, which,
written in Ro-
mance and found
in very old chro-
nicles at St Denys
in France, relates
how Laban, the
king of Babylon,
who was born at
quered a great
part of Christen-
He was holding
his court in the
city of Agremore,
on the river
with 12 kings and
li amirals, and
[If 1, bk]
when, in the time
he went to the
in a wood near
As it is wryten in Romaunce
And founden in bokes of Aiitiquyte
At Seinte Denyse Abbey in Fraunc[e], 1
There as Cronycles remembrede be, 28
Howe Laban, the kinge of hie degre,
And syr> and SowdorD of hie Babilon),
Conquerede grete parte of Christiante,
That was born in Askalori). 32
And in the Cite of Agremare 2
Vppon the Rivere of Flagote
At pat tyme he soiorned ther* 2
Fulle roially, wel I wote, 36
With kinges xij and Admyralles xiiij,
With many a Baron & Kni3tis ful boold,
That roialle were and semly to sene ;
Here worpynesse al may not be told. 40
Hit bifelle by-twyxte March and Maye,
Whan kynde corage begynneth to pryke,
Whan ffritft and felde wexen gaye,
And every wight desirith his like, 44
Whan lovers slepen withe opyn y^e,
As Nightyngalis on grene tre,
And sore desire pat thai cowde ilye,
That thay myghte withe here louere be : 48
This worthy Sowdon in this seson
Shope him to grene woode to goon,
To chase the Bore or the Veneson,
The Wolfe, the Bere and the Bawson. 52
He roode tho vppon a fforeste stronde
With grete rowte and roialte,
The fairest, pat was in alle pat londe,
With Alanntes, Lywmeris and Racches free. 56
His huntes to chace he cowmaunde,
Here Bugles boldely for to blowe,
To fere the beestis in pat launde.
1 leaf worn. 2 Sec the note.
OF THE CAPTURE OF A SARACEN SHIP BY THE ROMANS.
The Sowdon woxe wery I-nowe ;
He rested him vndere an holme tre
Sittynge vppon a grene sete
Seynge a Dronionde com sailyDg in J? e see
Anone he charged to bekyn him vriih honde
To here of him tidinges newe.
The maister sende a man to londe,
Of diuers langages was gode and trewe,
And saide "lorde, this Dromonde 1
Fro Babyloyne comen is,
That was worjje thousande poundis,
As 2 it mete with shrewes I-wis,
Charged with perle and precious stones
And riche pelure and spicerye,
With oyle and bras qweynte for the nones
To presente yow, my lorde worthy.
A drift of wedir 5 vs droffe to Rome,
The Romaynes robbed vs anone ;
Of vs thai slowgh ful many one.
With sorwe and care we be bygone.
Whereof, lorde, remedy e
Ye ordeyne by youre Barons boolde,
To wreke the of this vilane ;
Or certes oure blis is coolde."
The Soudon hirynge this tyjringe,
With egre chere he made a vowe
To Mahounde and to Appolyne,
That thai shulde by it dere I-nowe,
Er that he wente fro theyme. 3
" Where be ye, my kinges boolde,
My Barons and my Admyral ?
Thes tidinges make myn herte coolde,
But I be venged, dyen I shalle.
Sire Ferumbras, my sone so dere,
Ye muste me comforte in this case ;
1 See the note. 2 or Ar 3 See the note.
60 Being weary with
hunting, he sat
down under a
holm tree, and,
seeing a dromond
sailing on the sea,
he charged one to
enquire for news
The interpreter of
the vessel being
sent ashore, in-
soudan, that this
72 with a cargo of
spices, oil, brass
intended as a
present to the
soudan, had been
driven by stress
of weather to
Rome, where they
had been robbed
by the Romans.
solicited that the
soudan would take
revenge on those
who had done
tidings, made a
vow to Mahound
and to Apolyn,
that they should
dearly pay for it.
' Ferumbras, my
son,' he said,
'and my daughter
Floripas, ye must
THE SOUDAN STARTS FROM AGREMORE
be my comfort
in this case.
counsellor, to be
and my chancellor
and Espiard my
that he may go to
Africa and to
Asia and to
all the princes,
who owe me
them hastily to
shield and lance
In a short time
100,000 men had
On the advice of
Lukafer, king of
the souclan also
700 sail and a
himself, for Fe-
rumbras of Alex-
andrie, for the
Asiatic king of
< 'humidor and for
There were two
masters in that
vessel, and two
idols placed on
the main top,
with round maces,
The sails of red
My ioye is alle in the nowe here
And in my Doghter Dame Florypas. 96
Sortybraunce, my Counselere,
Lete clepe him forthe to counsaile me,
And Oliborne, my Chauncelere
And noble Clerke of hie degre, 100
And Espiarde, my messangere,
To goon to Assye and to Aufrike,
To kinges, princes f err* and ner 1 ,
Barons, Admyralls and Dukes frike, 104
Comaundinge hem vppoii her legeaunce
To come in al hast vnto me,
Wei Armed with shelde and launse,
To Egremoure Jxm riche Cite." 108
In shorte tyme this message was wroghte
An hundred thouusande on a rowte
That robbery was righte dere boght,
Was never none derrer withoutera donate. 112
The kinge of Baldas, sir Lukafer',
Of Aufryke lorde and governoure,
Spake to the Sowdon, that men myghte here,
And saide " sir, for thyn honour*, 116
Do sende for shippes both fer 1 and nere."
Carrikes, Galeis and shippes shene,
vij hundred were gadered al in fere
And a Dromonde for the Sowden kene. 1 20
Sir Eerumbras of Alisaundre
In the Dromonde with him was,
Of Assy the kinge of Chaunder 1 ,
And his faire doghter Eloripas. 124
Two maistres were in the Dromounde,
Two goddes on. hye seten thore
In the maister toppe, withe macis rounde,
To manace with the Cristen lore. 128
The sailes were of rede Sendelle,
Embrowdred with riche araye,
TO INVADE ROME WITH A GREAT ARMY.
With beestes and breddcs every dele,
That was right curious and gave ;
The Armes displaied of Laban
Of Asure and foure lions of goolde.
Of Babiloyne the riche Sowdon,
Moost myghty man he was of moolde,
He made a vowe to Termagaunte,
Whan Eome were distroied & hade myschauwce,
He woolde turne ayen erraunte
And distroye Charles the kinge of Fraunce.
Forth thai sailed on the flode,
Tille thai come to the haven of Kome :
The wynde hern served, it was ful goode.
Ther londed many a grymlye gome.
Thai brente and slowen, J?at Cristen were,
Town, Abbey and holy chirche.
The hethen hade such power there,
That moche woo gan thai there wirch.
Tidinggis came to Eome anone
Unto the Pope, that ]?* tyme was,
That the hejjen came to bren and slone.
This was to hem a sory cas.
He lete cal his counsaile to-geder
To wete, what was beste to don.
Anone as thai were come Jjeder*,
He asked of hem al ful sone :
"Lordinges, it is vnknowne 1 to you,
That this cursed hathen Sowdon
13re?myth and stroyeth cure pepul nowe,
Alive he leveth vnneth not one.
Seint Petir be oure governoure
And save this worthi Cite of Rome,
And Seinte Poule be oure gydoure
From this cursed hethen houne 2 ! "
Ifrej he bispake him than,
1 See the note. 2 looks like hound.
132 figures of animals
Four golden lions,
the arms of
the soudan of
Laban made a
vow to Terma-
gant, to destroy
Rome, and after
barked in the
haven of Rome,
they slew all
The Pope of
Rome, hearing of
laying waste the
Jeffrez, a senator
6 SAVABIS LEADS THE CHRISTIAN TROOPS
of Rome, advised Of Rome he was a Senatoure,
that worthy men
should be sent to And saide " senditn some worthy man
Charles of Douce
France to implore To Charles klllgG of llje hoilOUIG. 168
his assistance. TT , , *.
He wolde you helpe with al his mygnte,
That noble kinge of Dowse Fraunce."
But Duke savariz, " Certes " quod Savaris " bat weren no rigfrte.
thinking this to . T
be a wretched It were right a foule myschaunce, 172
piece of timidity, ,1 i
lo sende to bat worthy kinge.
as they had not We have oure hedes yet al hole,
tried anything for
themselves, Oure sheldes be not broke no-thinge,
Hawberke, spere, ner poleyne, ner pole. 176
Where-of shul we playn to him,
That no thinge yet have assaide 1
Mecti uylanye we myght wynne,
That for noght were so sone afrayed. 180
asked for 10,000 Ten thousande men delyuere me ty te
men to be put
under his Tomorue next in-to the feelde,
And I shall prove with al my myghte
To breke there bothe spere and sheldc." 184
Vnto the Senatours it semed welle,
His counsaile goode and honurable.
This worthi Duke was armed in stele
In armes goode and profitable ; 188
He bare a Chek of goulis clere,
An Egle of goolde abrode displayed.
With him many a bolde Bachelere
The next morning Tho spake Savarvj with" wordes on hve 192
the duke ad- J
dressed his men, And saide " my felowcs alle,
This daie prove you men worthy,
And faire you al shal befalle.
Thenke yat Criste is more myghty 196
Than here fals goddis alle ;
And he shal geve vs the victorie,
And foule shal hem this day bifalle."
and directed them Forth than rode bat faire Ooste 200
to the Boudan's
With right goode chere and ran don,
AGAINST THE SARACENS AND CONQUERS THEM.
Tille than come fill ny$e the cooste.
Of the Sowdons Pavylon
Eerumbras was of hem ware
And sprange out as a sparkil of glede ;
Of Armes bright a sheelde he bare,
A Doughty man he was of dede.
xv thousande came oute there
With him at J?at same tyde,
Ayen the Romaynes for to were,
With bobaunce, booste and grete pride.
The stoure was stronge, enduryng 1 longe :
The Romaynes hade there the feelde ;
The Sarysyns thai slough" amonge,
Ten thousand and mo with spere and sheelde.
Sauariz was wise and ware
And drowe towards ]?at Citee.
His baner displaied with" him he bare
To releve with his meyne.
The Pope with his Senatours
Thanked god fat tyme of glorie,
That gafe hem j)at day grete honours,
Of hethen that dai to have the victorie.
Lukafere, kinge of Baldas,
The countrey hade serchid and sought,
Ten thousande maidyns faire of face
Vnto the Sowdan hath he broghte.
The Sowdon commanded hem anone,
That thai shulde al be slayn.
Martires thai were euerychon,
And therof were thai al ful fayne.
He saide " my peple nowe ne shalle
With hem noughte defouled be,
But I wole distroie ouer all
The sede over alle Cristiante."
Tho spake lukefere the kinge,
That hethen hounde Baldas,
pavilion near the
204 Ferumbras, that
of them, led
208 15,000 men
10,000 and more
of the Saracens
2 1 D were slain, and
were led back to
Rome by the
220 The Pope thanked
God for the
maidens to the
ordered them to
232 saying, he would
not have his
by them, and he
Lukafer said to
the soudan :
THE NEXT DAY LUKAFER ASSAULTS THE CITY,
"Grant me thy
daughter and I
will bring tiiee
but Flovipas said,
she would only
consent to be his
when he had
taken Charles and
The next morning
to assault the
city with 30,000
finding the ditches
too deep, cannot
pass, and are
obliged to return.
And saide " Sir Sowdan, graunte me one thinge,
Thi doghter Dame Floripas.
The kinge of Fraunce I shal the bringe 240
And the xij dosipers alle in fere."
The Sowdan saide in J>at tokenyng*,
" I gmunte the here, that is so dere."
iho sayde Floripe "sire, noon haste, 244
He hath note done as he hath saide.
I trowe, he speketh these wordes in waste,
He wole make bute an easy brayde.
Whan he bryngith home Charles the kinge 248
And the xij dosipers alle,
I graunte to be his derlynge
What so evere therof by-falle.
Than on the morowe the Sowdan 252
Callid to him Lukafer 1 of Baldas,
To assaile the Cite anone :
" And loke thou tary not in this cas !
Thritty thousande of my menie, 256
Of Gallopes, Ethiopes and Aufricanes,
Take hem to the walles with the.
Betitfc down wallis, towris and stones."
Lukafer* blewe his clarion 260
To Assemble the Sarasyns fat tide,
Where-of thai knewe right welle the soune,
Thai made hem redy for to ride,
But whan thai come to the yate, 264
The Dikes were so develye depe,
Thai helde hem selfe Chek-mate ;
Ouer cowde thai nothir goo nor crepe.
Lukafer* in al the haste 268
Turned to the Sowdan agayn
And saide " sir, it is alle in waste,
We laboure nowe alle in vayne.
To depe and brode the Dikes bene, 272
The Towres so stronge be witli alle,
BUT THE HEATHENS ARE OBLIGED TO WITHDRAW.
That by Mahounde I can note seen,
How that we shulde wyne ther to the walle."
Who was woode but the Sowdon 1
He reneyed his goddis alle.
He clepede his Engynowr sir mavone,
To counsaile he did him faste calle.
He tolde him the case of J?at myschefe,
How it stode at that ilke tyde.
Mavon Gafe him counsel in breefe
To fille the Dikes J?at were depe. 1
Every man to woode shal goon,
Fagotis to hewe and faste bynde,
And fille the Dikes faste anoon
With alle. that we may ther fynde.
" Gramercy, Mavon," quod. Laban than,
" Mahoundis benysone thou shalt haue,
Of alle myn Ooste the wiseste man,
With counsaile men for to saue.
Alle this was done the seconde daye,
Men myght go even to the walle ;
On every party the ooste laye,
Thai made assaite 2 then generalle.
The Eomaynes ronnen to the toures,
Thai were in ful grete dowte ;
Thai hade many sharpe shoures,
Thai were assailed sore a-bowte.
Wifis and maidyns stones thai bare
To the walles than ful faste,
Thai were in grete drede and care ;
The men over the wallis did caste.
Thai slowen many a Sarasyn,
x thousands 5 pepul of hem and moo.
The daie passed to the fyne,
The hethen withdrowe hem tho.
Whan these tidinges came to laban,
1 Head ' wide ' 8 sic. ? assaute. 3 MS. M
The soudan calls
for his engineer
who advised him
to fill the ditch
288 I*ban thanks his
292 The following
day, the ditch
being filled with
fagots, the city
from all quarters.
296 The Romans ran
to the towers, and
a sharp conflict
stones which the
men threw over
the walls. .
were slain and
LUKAFER ENTERS THE MAIN TOWER OF ROME.
Laban chides his
gods and nearly
grows mad with
But Lukafer told
him that, having
the following day,
come out again to
fight with than,
lie would have a
exactly like his,
Savaris was much
engaged in the
battle, he would
tin fold and enter
And so it turned
the Romans mis-
taking him for
from his sally,
he entered the
and slew all
aware of the arti-
fice of the enemy,
and seeing out of
no more than
turned back, but
found the gate
His goddes he gan chide.
He waxe both blake, pale and wan,
He was ny^e woode J)at same tyde.
Tho Lukafer comfortede him welle
And saide " sir, be not dismayed,
For I have aspied everydele,
Howe thai shalle alle be betrayede.
Sauariz wole to morowe with us fighte,
His baner knowe I f ul welle ;
I shal have an othere, I you) plighte,
Like to this every dele.
Whan he is nioste besy in bataile,
Than wole I with banere displaiede
Eide in to Eome without faile,
Thus shal thai al be betrayede.
The Sowdan was glad of this tidinge,
Hopinge it shulde be so ;
And even as it was in purposynge,
Eight so was it aftir I-do.
Wenynge it hade be Sauarye,
Eelevinge fro the hethen stour*,
Wenynge doth ofte harme wMouto lye,
He entred to the maister Toure.
The firste warde thus tliay wo^ne
By this fals contrevede engyne.
Thus was moche sorowe bygon,
Thai slough all, that were ther-Inne.
Whan Sauariz saugh this discomfitur 1
Of the Eomaynes in that tyme,
And howe harde than was here aventur*,
Of sorowe fat myghte he ryme
Of x thousande men lefte no moo
But sexty men and twelfe,
And whan he sawe this myschief tho,
He turned homewarde agayn him selue.
By than he foundo the gate shite
THE POPE DESPATCHES MESSENGERS TO CHARLEMAGNE. 11
With Sarisyns, that hade it wone ;
And Estragot with him he inette
With bores hede, blake and donne.
For as a bore an hede hadde 348
And a grete mace stronge as stele.
He smote Sauaryz as he were madde, and was slain by
.. .. Estragot, a black
That dede to grounde he telle. giant of Ethiopia.
This Astrogot of Ethiop, 352
He was a kinge of grete strength ;
Ther was none suche in Europe
So stronge and so longe in length.
I trowe, he were a develes sone, 356
Of Belsabubbis lyne,
For ever he was thereto I- wone,
To do Cristen men grete pyne.
Whan tidinggis came to the [P]ope, 360 After the death of
Savaris, the Pope
That Duke Sauaryz was dede slayn,
Than to woo turned alle his hope ;
He dide calle than to counsaile summoned his
Alle the Senatouris of Rome, 364 c<
What pinge }>at myght hem most availe,
And what were beste to done.
Tho by-spake a worthy man of counsaile,
An Erille of the Senatouris : 368 Aneariofthe
_ senatours sug-
" The best counsaile, j?at I can ges ted the neces-
sity of dispatch-
ing messengers to
Sending vnto Charts the kinge*
Certifiynge him by your myssangeris
The myschief J>at ye are Inne, 372
That he come with his Dosyperys
To reskue Cristiante fro this hefen." [leafioj
All thai assentede anone therto ; r j hey an assented.
The le^res were made in haste. 376
Thre messageres we ordeyn 2 therto, Three messei,-
gers, with letters
That went forthe at the laste. written in haste,
1 Tills line in a much later hand. 2 Read: were ordeyncd
12 THE SARACENS THROW DOWN A BASTILE OF ROME.
left the city by a At a posteme thai wente oute
postern at mid-
night, and passed Pryvely aboute mydnyglit,
the enemy's camp , , , .
without being And passed through alle the route.
noticed by any r\ i* i-j.
W ig ht . U* hem was war no wignt.
Vt let we nowe the messangeris goon,
And speke we of Laban, 384
Howe he dide saile the Cite anooii,
Laban com- And commaundid, bat every man
man to throw Shulde withe Pikevs or with bille
pikes and bills
over the waiis, to The Wallis over throwe, 388
kill the Romans.
That he myght the Komaynes kille,
Playnly on a rowe,
He ordered the By water he ordeynede the shippes goon,
ships to go up the
water, with their The boohs Downden to the maste, 392
boats bound to ,, . . i , r> -t , ',11
the mast, that That thai myght fight with hem anoon,
mTselomS 1 Honde of honde, J?at was here caste.
Near the tower To the Toure a bastile stode,
there stood a
bastile which An engyne was I-throwe 396
formed a principal ~ _ ,
protection to the That was to the Cite ful goode
itTv'as laid low by And brake down towres both hie and lowe.
STi "Sne. Tho sorowede alle the Citesyns
And were ful hevy than. 400
Laban, growing Xho wox prowde the Sarasyns,
the Romans to And than bispake sire laban
And saide " yolde youe here to me,
Ye may not longe endure, 404
Or ellis shall ye al slayn be,
By mahouude I you ensure."
instead of an A Romayne drife a darte him to
answer, a Roman
hmied a dart at And smote him on the breste plate, 408
his breast-plate, -,,,-,, , , ,
but his hauberk J> e hadde his hawberke lasted tho,
shielded him. _ 111 , ,
Mahounde had come to late.
The soudan, more Tho was the Sowdon more ban wod,
chared Fcrum- He cried to Ferumbras, 412
bras to destroy
them ail, " For Mahoundcs loue, fat is so good,
Destroye vp bothe man and place.
ESTRAGOT IS CRUSHED BY A PORTCULLIS.
Spare no thinge that is alyve,
Hows, Toure ner Walle,
Beest, ner man, Childe nere Wife,
Erenne, slo and distroye alle."
Tho Ferumbras ordeynede an one
To bende the Engynes to the town
And bete down both Toure and stoon.
He cleped forth Fortibraunce and Mavon
And saide " be youre Engynes goode ?
Shewe forth here nowe your crafte
For Mahoundis love, ]?at gevith man foode,
That ther be no Toure lafte."
Tho the grete gloton Estagote 1
With his niyghty mace sware
On the Gatis of Rome he smote
And brake hem alle on thre thare.
In he entrid at the Gate
The Porte-Colis on him thai lete fallc.
He wende, he hade come to late,
It smote him through herte, lyuer and galle.
He lai cryande at the grounde
Like a develle of Helle ;
Through the Cite wente the sowne,
So lowde than gan he yelle.
Gladde were al the Romaynes,
That he was take in the trappe,
And sorye were al the Sarsyns
Of Jjat myschevos happe.
Sory was the Soudon than
And Ferumbras and Lukafer'.
Thai drowe hem tille her tentes than,
Thai left him ligginge there.
Mahounde toke his soule to him
And broght it to his blis.
He loued him wel and al his kyn,
416 [leaf 11 J
Mavon to direct
Act . their engines
4 A* against the walls.
The great glutton
Estragot, with his
4 Jo heavy mace,
smote on the
gates and brake
them in pieces.
But as he was
entering one of
432 the gates, they lot
the portcullis full,
him to the
where he lay
crying like a
The Romans were
glad, but the
440 Saracens grieved.
They withdrew to
their tents, leav-
ing behind the
corpse of Estra-
got, whose soul
went np to
THE POPE ATTEMPTS A SALLY.
The Pope called
all his people to
and proposed to
to attempt a sally
with 20,000 men,
to attack the
enemy before day-
break within their
and to leave
the guard of the
In the morning
the Pope dis-
played the banner
and after a prayer
for the preserva-
tion of the city,
they marched out.
going his rounds,
Of fat myghte he not mys.
Anone the [P]ope dide somon alle ;
The peple of the Cite came, 452
To Seinte Petris he dide hem calle,
And thidere came every man.
He saide on hie " my Children dere,
Ye wote wel, ho we it is ; 456
Ayenst the Sarisyns, fat nowe be here,
We niowe not loDge endure I-wis.
Thay brekene oure walles, oure Toures alle
With caste of his Engyne. 460
Therefore here amonge you) alle
Ye shalle here counsaile myne.
Thai bene withdrawe to here Oost, 1
And on-armede thay ben alle. 464
Therfore, me thenketh, is beste
To-morowe erly on hem to falle.
We have xxx ti thousande men ;
Twenty thousande shal go witfi. me, 468
And in this Cite leve ten
To governe the comynalte."
The Senatouris assentede sone
And saide, beter myghte no man seyne. 472
On the morowe this was it done 2 ;
God bringe hem wele home agayne.
The Pope did display than
The hie baner of Rome, 476
And he assoiled every mafl
Through gracious god in Dome.
He praide of helpe and socour*
Seinte Petir and Poule also 480
And oure lady, fat swete floure,
To saue the Cite of Rome from woo.
Forth thai riden towarde the Oost.
Ferumbras romede a-boute ; 484
1 Read: reste 2 See the note.
FERUMBRAS DRAWS UP THE SARACEN TROOPS.
He saw the Eomaynes comen by the Cost, 1
Thereof he hade grete dowte.
He blewe an home, of bras it was ;
The Sarsyns be-gon to wake. 488
" Arise vp " he saide in aras, 2
" We bene elles alle I-take,
And Armes anone, every wight,
To horse with spere and shelde ! 492
Ye may se here a ferefuH sighte
Of oure enemyes in the felde.
Astopars, 3 goo ye biforne vs,
For ye be men of myghte ; 496
Ethiopes, Assayne^ and Askalous,
Go nexte afore my sighte.
My Fadir and I with Babyloynes,
Ho 4 shal kepe the rerewarde. 500
King Lukafer 1 with Baldeseynes,
To venge alle, shalle have the Fowarde."
The Eomaynes aspied, Jjat thai were ware
Of here comynge than, 504
And therfore hade thay moche care.
Natheles on hem thai gon
Seinte Petir be here socoure !
And laiden on side, bake and bon. 508
There bigan a sturdy shoure
Sire 5 Ferumbras of Alisaundre oon, 6
That bolde man was in dede,
Vppon a steede Cassaundre gaye, 512
He roode in riche Weede.
Sire Bryer of Poyle a Romayne to fraye
He bare through with" a spere,
Dede to the grounde ther he Ian 516
Might he no more hem dere !
and drew up his
There began a
Sir Bryer of
1 MS. Oost corrected to Cost.
* See the note. * Head : We
6 See the note.
3 Head : a ras.
5 MS. Berumbras.
16 A GREAT MANY ARE SLAIN ON EITHER SIDE.
That sawe Huberte, a worthy man,
Howe Briere was I-slayn,
Per umbras to qwite than 520
To him he rode ful even.
With a spere vppone his shelde fan
Stifly ganne he strike ;
The shelde he brake I-myddis the feelde ; 524
His Hawberke wolde not breke.
Many goode strokes were delte.
Ferumbras was a-greved tho,
and the worthy He smote with mayne and myghte 528
The nekke asonder, the ventayle also,
That dede he sate vprighte.
There was bataile harde and stronge ;
Many a steede wente ther a-straye, 532
And leyen at the grounde I-stonge,
That resyn never aftyr that day,
9000 pagans were IX thousand of the payens pride
That day were slayn, 536
and 8000 Romans. And viij thousande of the Romaynes side,
That in the feelde dede laywe.
Lukafer destroyed Lukafere, pat paynym proude,
Slough Romaynes ey^tene, 540
Of werr 1 moche sorowe he coude,
lie also slew ^* s s ^ ro ^ es were over alle sene.
Gyndard, a Gyndarde, a Senatoure of Rome,
senator of Rome, J
[leaf 14] Had slayne Sarsenys ten, 544
who had slain ten '
Saracens. Tille he met with the cursed gome,
Lukifere slough him than.
Then came the Tho come the Pope with grete aray,
Pope with a great
guard and his His baner to-fore him wente. 548
him. r erumbras than gan to assaye,
If he myght that praye entente,
Ferumbras, sup- Supposynge in this thoughrtle,
posing him to be J '
the sovereign, Ther was the souerayne ; 552
He spared him therfore right noglit,
FERUMBRAS ENCOUNTERS THE POPE.
But bare him down ther in ]> e playn.
Anoon he sterte on him all ane
His Ventayle for to onlace,
And saugh his crown newe shafe,
A-shamed thanne he was.
" Fye, preest, god gyfe the sorowe !
What doist thou armede in the feelde,
That sholdest saie thi matyns on morwe,
What doist thou) with" spere and shelde 1
I hoped, thou) hadiste ben an Empmmre,
Or a Cheftayne of this Ooste here,
Or some worthy conqueroure.
Go home and kepe thy Qwer 1 !
Shame it were to me certayne
To sle the in this bataile,
Therf ore turne the home agayn I "
The Pope was gladde J)er-of certayne, 1
He wente home to Rome that nyght
With Five thousande and no more,
XV thousande lefte in the feelde aplight,
Full grete sorowe was therfore.
NOwe telle we of the messanger*,
That wente to Charlemayne,
Certyfyinge him by lettres dere,
Howe the Romaynes were slayne,
And howe the Contrey brente was
Vnto the Gate of Rome,
And howe the people song * alas/
Tille socoure from him come.
" Who " quod Charles, that worthy kinge,
" The Sowdon and Ferumbras ?
I nyl lette for no thinge,
Till I him oute of Cristendome chace.
Therefore Gy of Burgoyn,
Mynne owen nevewe so trewe,
1 Read: < without faile.'
burst open the
thick crowd and
threw him down
KKf> to the ground.
But seeing his
tonsure, he was
" Fie, priest," he
said, " what doest
560 thou in the
It would be a
shame for me to
D6o slay thee.
Go home and
think of thy choir-
572 5000 men,
from the mes-
senger the great
had befallen the
desist until he
had chased the
Ferumbras out of
THE SARACENS AGAIN ATTACK THE CITY.
He gave 1000
pounds of francs
to his nephew
Guy of Burgundy,
and sent him off
with orders to
the soudan by
follow as soon as
Lukafer of his
to bring him
in return for his
Lukafer said, he
would do all he
With 10,000 men
he attacked the
city on one side,
the other being
The combat con-
tinues as long as
At night they
retired to their
Take a thausande pounde of Frankis fyne,
To wage wytfc the pepul newe.
Take this with the nowe at this tyme,
And more I wole sende the,
Loke that thou spare no hors ne shelde,
But fat he dede be ;
And faste hye the thyderwarde,
For I drede thay haue grete nede,
And I shalle come aftirwarde
As faste, as I may me spede."
SPeke we of Sir Laban
And let Charles and Gy be,
Howe he ordeyned for hem than
To Distroye Rome Citee.
" Sir Lukafer', thou madiste thi boost
To conquer* the Romaynes
And to bringe me the Ooste
Of the xij peris and Charlemayne.
Vppon a condicion I graunte the
My doghter, dere Dame Floripas.
Wherefore, I aske nowe of the
To holde covenawnte in this cas. "
"That I saide" q?/od Lucafere,
"To Mahounde I make a vowe
To done al J?at I hight the ther",
Ye and more than 1 for Florip love."
He ordeyned assaute anone in haste
With x thousande men and moo ;
And Ferumbras at that oj>er side faste
Assailed hem with grete woo.
The saute endured al J>at daye
From morowe, tille it was nyght,
To throwe and shete by euery waye,
While that hem endured the light.
Tho wente thai home to thair* tentys,
1 Sec tlie note.
THEY ENTER ROME BY TREASON.
Tille it were on the morowe. G24
Isres in his fals ententes
Purposed treson and sorowe.
He was chief Porter of the Town,
By heritage and fee so he shulde be. 628
He wente to the Sowdan,
For the riche Cite be tray e woolde he,
And saide " lorde, gife me grace
For my goodes and for me, 632
And I wole dolyuQi the this place
To haue and holde for ever in fee.
The keyes of this riche Cite
I haue in my bandon." 636
" That graunte I " qwod Laban " the
To be free withoute raunson."
Ferumbras made him yare,
With xx u thousand men and moo,
With this Isres for to fare,
And to wynne the Cite soo.
As sone as he entred was
The chief Gate of alle,
And alle his men in aras, 1
He lete the Portcolys falle.
He smote of the traitourus hede
And saide " god gife him care !
Shal he never more ete brede,
All traitowrs evel mot 2 thai fare !
If he myght leve and reigne here,
He wolde betraye me ;
For go he west, south or North,
Traitowr shalle he never be."
He dide lete bere his hede on a spere
Through-oute this faire Citee.
* Treson, treson ' thai cried there,
Pite it was to here and see.
1 Head : ' a ras.' ' MS. met
Isres, who pos-
sessed by inherit-
ance the guard of
the principal gate,
He repaired to the
offered to betray
the city on condi-
tion that his life
should be spared.
The soudan pro-
20,000 men went
640 with Isres.
On entering the
he caused the
traitor's head to
be struck off by
the portcullis, and
to be carried on
the point of a
656 spear through the
" Treason," cried
the people within,
FERUMBRAS TAKES THE RELICS TO AGREMORE.
and all streets
were soon covered
with dead men.
to St. Peter's,
seized the relics,
the cross, the
crown and the
burned the whole
and carried away
all the treasures
and the gold to
where the soudan
went to stay.
and three days
they spent there
to their gods,
They drank the
blood of beasts
and milk, and
fried in oil.
The people fled by every waye,
Thai durst no-where a-bide. 660
The hye wey ful of dede men laye,
And eke by every lanys side.
Ferumbras to Seinte Petris wente,
And alle the Eelekes he seased anoon, 664
The Crosse, the Crown, the Nailes bente ;
He toke hem with him everychone.
He dide dispoile al the Cite
Both of tresoure and of goolde, 668
And after that brente he
Alle )>at ever myght be toolde.
And alle the tresoure with hem J>ai bare
To the Cite of Egremour*. 672
Laban the Sowdon soiourned there 1
Thre monies and thre dayes more
In myrth and loye and grete solas.
And to his goddes offrynge he made, 676
He and his sone Sir Ferumbras
Here goddis of golde dide fade,
Thai brente Frankensense,
That smoked vp so stronge, 680
The Fume in her presence,
It lasted alle alonge.
Thai blewe homes of bras,
Thai dronke beestes bloode. 684
Milke and hony ther was,
That was roial and goode.
Serpentes in Oyle were fryed
To serve )> e Sowdon with alle, 688
" Antrarian Antrarian " thai lowde cryed
That signyfied * loye generalle.'
Thus thai lived in loye and blis
Two monies or thre. 692
Lete we now be alle this,
1 See the note.
GUY AND CHARLEMAGNE APPROACH.
And of Gye nowe speke we.
~1^"T"Ow speke we of Sir Gye
\ I That toward Rome hied with his Oost.
-L 1 Whan he approched there-to so 11730,
That he myght se the cooste,
Alle on a flame J?at Cite was,
That thre myle al abowte,
Ther durst no man, J>at ther was,
Come ny}e the Cite for grete dowte.
That was a sory Cite than,
Sir Gye was in grete care,
Ther was nowhere a soryer man,
For sorowe he sighed ful sare,
And saide " welallas " l the while
" For we come ar to late,
For by some treson or some gyle
Thai entred in at some Gate.
There is no more but for to abyde,
Tille Charles come, the kinge,
In this mede Ynder grene wode side,
To telle him of this tithinge,
Howe Laban hath the Cite brente
And bore the Religes 2 a-waye,
And howe he hath hem to Spayne sente
With Shippes of grete aray,
To Egremour 1 his chief Cite,
Ther to live and ende ;
And manassith Charles and his baronye.
God gife hem evelle ende ! "
Kinge Charles he forgate nought
To come to reskowe Rome,
Alle his Do^ypers were I-sought,
Fulle sone to him thay come.
Thre hundred thousande of Sowdeoures
1 MS. is rubbed, but it looks more like welawai.
2 Read: 'reliqes.'
When Sir Guy
drew near Rome,
finding the whole
city in flames,
704 he grieved much
708 that he had
arrived too late.
He resolved there
to wait for
and then to tell
him, how Laban
had burnt the
f, * / city, and had sent
*iO the relics to
his principal tow i
rescue Rome wit 1
22 CHARLES HEARS OF THE MISCHIEF DONE BY THE SARACENS.
Roland led the
Oliver the rear,
the king was
with the main
were conveyed by
Guy seeing them
come, went to
meet the king,
and told him the
mischief done by
had made a vow
to seek Charles in
France in order
to afflict him
" He will find me
shall dearly pay
consents to be
Kinge Charles with him dide lede, 728
They were doughty in all stourys
And worthy men of dede.
Sir Eoulande fat worthy knighte,
He ladde the Fowarde, 732
And Sir Olyuer*, that was so wighte,
Gouerned the Rerewarde.
The Kinge himselfe and his Baronye,
With Dukes And Erilles roialle, 736
Gouerned alle the medil partye.
By coramaundemente generall
He ordeynede grete plente
Of Flessh and Fissh, brede and wyne, 740
In shippes to saile by the see,
To serven him ful wel and fyne.
Sir Gye aspied his comynge,
He knewe the baner of Fraunce, 744
He wente anoon ayen the kinge
And tolde him of J>at myschaunce,
Howe that the cursed Sowdan
Hath brent Rome and bore the Relekis awaye, 748
And how he hath slayn alle and some,
That he hath founde of Cristen faye.
And more-over he made his a-vowe,
To seke kinge Charles in Fraunce 752
And do him wo ther I-nowe.
" God gif him moch myshaunce ! "
"A" qwodl Charles " )jat neditli noght,
He shal fynde me nere. 756
By god, J)at dere me bogfrt,
He shal by it ful dere.
I shalle him never leve I-wis
Withinne walle ner withoute, 760
I swere by god and seinte Denys,
Tille I have sought him oute ;
And but if he will Baptised be
HE GOES OVER TO SPAIN.
And lefe his fals laye, 764
Babyloyne shal he never see
For alle his grete aray.
A noon to shippe every mail
With vitaile and with store,
Euen towarde the proud Sawdan
With-outen any more.
Wynde him blewe ful fayre and goode
Into the Ry ver of Ga3e,
Even over the salte flode
And oner the profounde rase.
XXX legee} from Egremour 1
By londe for south it is,
And ther withoute any more
To londe thai wente I-wis,
And brente and sloughen al ]?at thai fonde,
And stroyed both Toure and town. 780
Thai lefte no thinge on grounde,
That thai ne bete it down.
Tithinggis were tolde to Laban,
Howe Charles was I-come 784
And slough bouth childe, wyfe, man
And brente and stroyed alle and some
With thre hundred thousand of Bacheleris,
That were both stoute and gaye, 788
And with him al his Dosyperis,
Pepul of grete araye.
" And but ye ordeyne remedy,
He wole you brenne and slooii, 792
Youe and youre riche Baronye,
He wole leve a-life neuere oon."
Whan Laban herde these tidyngys,
His herte woxe alle coolde 796
And saide " this is a wonder thinge !
Howe durste he be so boolde ?
Litill kennyth he what I may doo,
lie never shall see
They all took
772 Propitious winds
drove them into
the river Gase,
landed, 30 miles
,, from Agremore,
and laid waste
this news ,
A GREAT BATTLE ENSUES.
all his barons,
and charged them
to bring him
alive that glutton
himself king of
and to slay the
forth with many
He meets with
They deal each
Oliver cuts off a
lasted the whole
Well fought the
He dredith me litil nowe.
But certes he slialle, er* he goo,
To Mahounde I make a vowe.
Sir Lucafer 1 and Ferumbras
To him dide he calle
And Mavon and Sortebras
And his Barons alle.
I charge you vppon youre legeaunce,
That ye bringe me that gloton,
That clepeth himselfe kinge of Fraunce,
Hidere to my Pavilon.
Kepe him a-live, the remenaunte sle
The xij Peris ychoon !
I shalle tech him curtesye,
I s were by god Mahounde."
Ferumbras anoon than
Arrayed him for to ride
With proude Sarasyns many a man,
That boldely durst a-bide.
Rowlande met with Ferumbras
And gafe him such a stroke
That al astonyed perof he was,
It made him lowe to stoupe.
Ferombras smote him agayne
"With myghte and rnayrc, with ire
That he stenyed alle his brayne,
Him thought, his eyen were alle on fyro.
With Lucafer* Oliver* mette,
And hit him on the sheelde
A stroke, that was right wel sette ;
A quarter flye in the feelde.
Thus thai hurteled to-gedere
Alle the lefe longe daye,
Nowe hider and nowe theder ;
Mony an hors wente ther astraye.
The Dosyperis thay foughten wele,
CHARLES ENCOUNTERS FERUMBRAS AND LUKAFER.
Duke Neymys and Oger*, 836
With goode sxverdes of fyne stele
And so dide Gye and Syr Bryer*.
Ferumbras was euer a-bowte
To fyghte with Olyvere,
And Olyuer* with-oute dowte
Leyde on with goode chere.
Kinge Charles saugh Fer umbras,
To him fast he rode
And it on the helme with his mace,
That stroke sadlye abode.
Ferumbras was woode for woo,
He myght for prees come him to
For no worldis thinge, that myght be tho.
Kinge Charles anoon 1 loye oute-drowe,
And with his owen honde
XXX tt Sarseynys ther he slowe,
That laie dede vppone the sonde ;
Many of hem therfore made joy Inowe.
Sir Lucafere of Baldas,
He presed to Charles sone,
And saide " Sir, with harde grace,
What hastowe here to done ?
I benight Laban to bringe the to him
And the xij peris alle ;
Now shaltowe come from al thy kyn
Into the Sowdans halle.
Yelde the to me " he saide,
" Thy life shalle I safe." 864
A stroke on him than Charles layde ;
He made the Paynym to rafe.
He smote him on the helme
With mown-Ioye, his gode bronde. 868
Ne hadde he be reskued than,
He hade slayn him with his honde.
1 A modern hand has written in the margin " Mount."
seeing this, rides
844 on to Ferumbras,
and strikes his
helm with his
848 him on account
of the crowd.
with his sword
Mounjoy slew 30
told him that
he had promised
860 the soudan to
Charles and the
him on his
THE SARACENS QUIT THE FIELD.
but Lukafer is
rescued by a
cleared a space
around him and
heads of the
So do the other
At night the
Pagans quit the
never to desist
Than came Balde^yn} with thronge
To reskue there here lorde, 872
And nubens with hem amonge
And Turkes by one accorde.
Tho Roulande Durnedale oute-drowe
And made Rorame 1 abowte. 87 G
XL of hem ther he slowe,
Tho were thai in grete dowte.
Roulande as fiers as a lion
With Durnedale 2 tho dinge 880
Vppon the Sarsyns crowne,
As harde as he myght flynge.
Duke Neymys and Sir Olyuer*,
Gy and Alloreynes of Loreyne, 884
And alle the noble xij Peris,
Oger* and Bryer* of Brytayne,
Thai foughten as feythfully in }?at fight,
The feelde ful of dede men laye. 888
XXX* 1 thousande, I you plight,
Of Sarsenys ther were slayn.
Al thinge moste haue an ende,
The nyghte come on ful sone, 892
Every wighte retourned to wende ;
Ferumbras to his men gan gone
And saide " oure homes blowe we,
This day haue we a ful ille afraye, 89 G
To saie the south and not to lye,
Oure goddis holpe vs not to daye,
What devel J>at ever hem eilith.
This bataile was so sharpe in faye, 900
That many a man it wailyth.
Shalle I never in herte be glade to daye,
Till I may preve my myghte
With Roulande, that proude ladde, 904
Or with Olyuer 1 , that is so lighte,
1 See the note. ' Insert : ' gan.'
CHARLES PRAISES THE OLD KNIGHTS.
That evel hath vs ladde ;
And in Paris be crowned kinge
In despite of hem alle,
1 wole leve for no thinge
What so evere byfalle.
Kinge Charles with grete honour*
"Wente to his Pavilofi ;
Of the treyumple he bare the flour*
In dispite of Mahounde.
Almyghty God and Seynte Denyse
He thanked ful ofte sithe
And oure lady Marie of Paris,
That made hem gladde and blitfi.
He recomendide the olde Knightes,
That }>at daye hade the victorye,
And charged the yonge with al her myghtes
To haue hem in memory e ;
For worth ynesse wole not be hadde,
But it be ofte sougfrte,
Ner knighthode wole not ben hadde,
Tille it be dere boghte.
" Therfore ye knightes, yonge of age,
Of oolde ye may now lere,
Howe ye shalle both hurle and rage
In felde with sheelde and spere.
And take ensample of the xij Peris,
Howe thai have proved her myght,
And howe thai were both wight and fiers
To wynnen honourys in righte.
These hethen houndes we shal a-tame
By God in magiste,
Let us make myrth" in goddis name
And to souper nowe goo we."
OThow, rede Mar^ Armypotente,
That in the trende baye hase made J>y trone,
That god arte of bataile and regent
unless he be
crowned king at
Charles went to
bis pavilion and
and St. Mary of
He praised the
elder knights for
920 having won the
to take an
example by them.
They make merry
and go to supper.
. _ to the red Mars
SPRING IS THE TIME OP LOVE.
to grant the
victory over the
In the spring of
man ought to
and to think of
For none can be a
unless he knows
how to love.
And rulist alle that alone,
To whom I profre precious present,
To the makande my moone
With herte, body and alle myn entente,
A crown of precious stoones,
And howe to the I gyfe
Withouten fraude or engyne,
Vppofi thy day to make offerynge,
And so shal I ever, while fat I live,
By righte J>at longith to my laye,
In worshipe of thy reverence
On thyn owen Tewesdaye
With inyrr 1 , aloes and Frankensense,
Vppon condition that thou me graunte,
The victorye of Crystyn Dogges,
And that I may some 1 hem adaunte
And sle hem down as hogges,
That have done me distruccion
And grete disherytaunce
And eke slayn my men with wronge.
Mahounde gyfe hem myschaunce ! "
IN the semely seson of the yere,
Of softenesse of the sonne,
In the prymsauns of grene vere,
Whan floures spryngyn and bygy/me,
And alle the floures in the fritll
Freshly shews here kynde,
Than it is semely therwyth",
That manhode be in mynde ;
For corage wole a man to kith,
If he of menske haue mynde,
And of loue to lystyn and lithe,
And to seke honur 1 for J?at ende.
For he was neuere gode werryour*,
That cowde not loue a-ryght ;
1 Read: 'sorie.'
TITE SOUDAN RALLIES HIS TROOPS.
For louc hath made many a conquerour*
And many a worthy knighte.
This worthy Sowdan, though he he)>en wer 1 ,
He was a worthy conquerour' ;
Many a contrey with shelde and spere
He conquerede wyth grete honoure.
And his worthy sone Eerumbras,
That kinge was of Alisaundr 1 ,
And Lucaf er* of Baldas,
That cruel kinge of Cassaundr*,
That wroughten wonders with here honde
With myghte and mayne for to fyghte,
And over-ride mony a manly londe,
As men of Armes hardy and wighte.
The Sowdan seyinge this myschief,
How Charles hade him a-greved,
That grevaunce was him no thinge lese, 1
He was ful sore ameved.
He sente oute his bassatoures
To Realmes, provynces ferr* and ner*,
To Townes, Citeis, Castels and Tours,
To come to him thei j he were,
To Inde Maior and to Assye,
To Ascoloyne, Yenys, Frige and Ethiope,
To Nubye, Turk ye and Barbarye,
To Macedoine, Bulgar 1 and to Europe.
Alle these people was gadred to Agremore,
Thre hundred thousand of Sarsyns felle,
Some bloo, some yolowe, some blake as more,
Some horible and stronge as devel of helle.
He made hem drinke Wilde beestes bloode,
Of Tigre, Antilope and of Camalyon,
As is here vse to egre here mode,
Whan }>ai in werre to battayle goon.
He saide to hem " my frendes der*,
As my trust is alle in you,
1 Read: 'lefe.'
The soudan was
The soudan sent
for his vassals,
more than 300,000
them in order
THE SARACENS SACRIFICE TO THEIR GODS.
to increase their
ordered a solemn
sacrifice to his
to march with
30,000 of Ins
whom he wished
to teach courtesy,
and to slay
all his men
and Olive ,
On these Frenche dogges, that bene here,
Ye moste avenge me no we.
Thai have done rne vilanye,
Mikille of my people have thay slayn. 1016
And yet more-over thay manace me
And drive me to my contrey agayn ;
Wherefore I wole at the bygynnynge
To Mahounde and to my goddis alle 1020
Make a solempne offerynge ;
The better shall it vs byfalle.
The laste tyme thai were wrothe,
We hade not done oure dute. 1024
Therefore to saye the southe "
There were many hornys bio we,
The preestes senden thikke I-nowe
Goolde, and silver thikke thai thro we, 1028
With noyse and crye thai beestes slowe,
And thought to spede wel I-nowe ;
And every man his vowe he made
To venge the Sowdan of his tene. 1032
Here goddis of golde thai wex alle fade,
The smoke so grete was hem bitwene.
Whan alle was done, the Sowdan than
Charged Ferumbras redy to be 1036
On the morowe, ere day began,
To ride oute of Jjat Cite
With xxx tl thousande of Assiens,
Frigys, Paens and Ascoloynes, 1040
Turkis, Indeis and Venysyens,
Barbarens, Ethiopes and Macidoynes,
" Bringe him to me, that proude kinge ;
I shal him teche curtesye, 1044
Loke that thou leve for nothinge
To sle alle his other mayne,
Safe Eouland and Olyuere,
That bene of grete renowne, 1048
FERUMBRAS CHALLENGES 6 CHRISTIAN KNIGHTS TO SINGLE COMBAT. 31
If thai wole reneyc her 1 goddis ther*
And Jeven on myghty Mahounde."
F Ei-umbras with grete araye
Rode forthe, Mahounde him spede,
TilJe he came ny^e ther 1 Charles lay
By syde in a grene mede.
In a woode he buskede his men
Prively that same tyde,
And with his felowes noon but ten
To kinge Charles he gan ride
And said " sir* kinge, that Arte so kene,
Upon trwes I come to speke with the,
If thou be curteis, as I wene,
Thou wolte graunte a bone to me,
That I mighte fight vppon this grene,
With Rouland, Olyvere and Gye,
Duke Neymes and Oger 1 1 mene,
Ye and Duke Richarde of Normandy e,
With al sex attones to fight.
My body I profr* here to the
And requyre the, kinge, thou) do me right,
As thou art gentille Lord and fre ;
And if I may eonquere hem in fere,
To lede them home to my Faderis halle ;
And if thai me, I graunte the here,
To be thy man, body and alle.
The kinge Answered with wo^'s mylde
And saide " felowe, J>at neditfi nought,
I shalle fynde of myn a Childe,
That shal the fynde that thou hast sought."
The kinge lete calle Sir Roulande
And saide " thou most with this man fight,
To take this bataile here on honde,
Ther-to God gyfe the grace and myghte ! "
Roulande answered with woordis boolde
And saide " Sir, have me excused! ! "
if they would
out his troops ;
camp, he ordered
to halt in a wood,
with only ten of
his men to the
and offered him
in/*,! to fight at once
the Dane, and
If he should
conquer them, he
would lead them
away to his
father's hall ;
if he should be
he would be hia
The king sent
for Roland and
1080 ordered him to
32 ROLAND REFUSES TO UNDERTAKE THE COMBAT.
He saide, certeynly he ne wolde ;
The bataile vttirly he refused,
because Charles Th e laste day ye preised faste
had praised the J "
[leaf 27] The oolde knightes of her 1 worthynes. 1 088
Let hem goon forth, I haue no haste,
" Ma - v the y 8how Thai may goo shewen her 1 prowes."
now." For that worde the kinge was wrothe
smites Rdand on And smote him on the mouthe on hye, 1092
so that the blood The bloode at his nose oute-goth,
springs from his .
nose, And saide " traitowr, thou shalte a-bye.
traitor. " A-bye " quod Koulande " wole I noughte,
And traitour was I never none, 1096
By fat lord, bat me dere hath bought ! "
Roland draws his And braide oute Durnedale ber 1 anone.
Ho wolde haue s my ten the kinge ther 1 ,
but the other Ne hadde the barons ronne bytwene ; 1100
them The kinge with-drowe him for fer*
And passed home as it myght beste bene.
and try to con- The Barons made hem at one
With grete prayer 1 and instaunce, 1104
As every wrath moste over-gone,
Of the more myschiefe to make voydaunce.
Meanwhile Oliver, OlyUCre herde telle of thlS,
wounded, kept his That in his'bedde laye seke sore. 1108
bed, on hearing . .
of this dispute, He armede him ful sone I-wisse,
had armed him- . . ., . . , .,,
self and went to And to the kinge he wente withoute more
And saide " Sir Kinge, a bone graunte me
He reminds him JT or a ll e the servyse, that I haue done, 1112
of his long
services, and To fight with bat kinge so free
battle. To morue day, ere it be none.
Charles answered to Olyuer 1 :
Charles remon- Thou arte seke and woundede sore, 1116
strates with him.
And thou also my cosyn dere,
Therfore speke thereof no more."
Bat Oliver Sir Kinge " he saide " I am alle hoole,
I aske you this bone in goddis name." 1120
OLIVER GOES TO FIGHT WITH FERUMBRAS. 33
" Certes " he saide " I holde the a fole,
But I praye, god sheelde the fro shame."
Forth he rideth in that Forest, oiwer rides to the
Tille he gan Ferumbras see, 1124 and finds
Where he was light and toke his rest, alighted under a
.__. . , ,., tree, to a branch
His stede renewed til a grene tre. of which MS
Sir" he saide "reste thou) wele !
Kinge Charles sente me hidur*. 1128
" Arise," he said,
If thou be curteys knighte and lele, "lam come to
fight with thee."
Rise vp and let vs fight to-geder. [leaf 28]
Ferumbras sate stille and lough, Ferumbras,
Him listenot to rise oute of the place. 1132 demands his
" My felowe " quod he " what arte thou ?
Telle me thy name for goddis grace."
" Sir " he saide " Generyse, "i am Generys,"
says Oliver, " a
A yonge knighte late dobbet newe." 1136 young knight
" By Mahounde " quod he " thou arte not wyse,
For thy comyng shaltowe sore rewe.
I holde Charles but a foole Ferumbras
To sende the hidei to me, 1140 "cimriesisa
fool to send thee.
I shall the lerne a newe scole,
If thoue so hardy to fighte be.
I wende, he wolde haue sende Roulande,
Olyuer 5 and iiij mo Dosyperys, 1144
That hade bene myghty men of honde
Bataile to a-bide stronge and fiers.
With the me liste no playe begynne,
Ride agayn and saye him soo ! 1 1 48 GO and ten wm to
T . send me Roland
Of the may I no worshype wynne, and Oliver, and
IYI ITT *- 1 -i IT )> suc h f ur other
Though I slough the and such V mo." douzepeers.
" Howe longe " quod Olyuer 1 " wiltowe plete 1
Take thyfi armes and come to me, 1152
Ajid prove J?at thou saiest in dede, oiTvtrf'S take
For boost thou blowest, and jjenkes 1 me." thy arms."
Whan Ferumbras herde him speke so Wei,
1 Head: ' as thenketh.'
CHARL. ROM. V. D
OLIVER LAYS HOLD OF THE BOTTLES OF BALM,
wrath and seizes
assists him to
bowing to him.
They mount their
like fire of
have their lances
They draw their
Oliver on his
so that the
Oliver strikes at
the head of
breaks away the
circle of his
and the sword
glancing off down
his back, he
cuts off two
bottles of balm,
He caught his helrne in grete Ire, 1156
That wroght was of goode fyne stele
With Perlis pight, Rubeis and Saphire.
Olyuer 1 halpe him it to onlase ;
Gilte it was alle abowte. 1160
Ferumbras Ranked him of his grace
And curteisly to him gan lowte.
Thai worthed vp on here stedes,
To luste thai made hem preest, 1164
Of Armes to shewe her 1 myghty dedis
Thai layden here speres in a-reeste,
To-geder thai ro?inen as fire of thonder*,
That both here Launces to-braste. 1168
That they seten, it was grete wonder ;
So harde it was, J?at thay gan threste.
Tho droweii thai oute here swordes kene
And smyten to-geder by one assente. 1172
There thai hitten, it was wele sene ;
To sle eche other was here entente.
Syr Ferumbras smote Olyuer*
Yppoii the helme righte on hye 1176
With his swerde of metel cler*,
That the fyre he made oute-flye.
Olyuer* him hitte agayn vpon the hede
1 the hede than fulle sore, 1180
He carfe awaye with myght and mayne
The cercle, that sate vppon his crown.
The stroke glode down by his bake,
The Arson he smot ther awaye 1184
And the botelles of bawme withoute lake,
That uppone the grene ther thai laye,
That were trussed by-hynde him faste.
Tho Ferumbras was fuH woo ; 1188
Olyuer* light adowfi in haste,
The botellis he seased both two,
1 Blank in MS. See the note.
THROWS THEM INTO THE RIVER, BUT HAS HIS HORSE KILLED. 35
He threwe hem into the River than
As ferr 5 as he myghte thro we. 1192
"Alas" quod. Ferumbras "what doistowe, 1 manne?
Thou art wode, as I trowe.
Thai were worth an C ml pounde
To a man, fat were wounded sore. 1196
Ther was no preciosowr thinge vppoii grounde,
That myghte helpe a man more.
Thou shalt abye by Mahounde,
That is a man of myghtes moost. 1200
I shall breke both bake and crown
And sle the, ther thou goist."
Tho Olyuer* worth vp agayn,
His swerde he hade pute I-drawe. 1204
Ferumbras him smote with niayne
And mente to haue him slawe.
He smote as doth the dinte of fondir ;
It glased down by his sheelde 1208
And carfe his stedes neke a-sonder,
That dede he fille in the felde.
Wightly Olyuer 1 vp-sterte
As Bacheler, doughti of dede, 1212
With swerde in honde him for to hirte
Or Ferumbras goode stede.
That Ferumbras aspied welle,
He rode a-waye than ful faste 1216
And tiede him to a grene hasel,
And come ay en to him in haste
And saide "no we yelde the to me !
Thou maiste not longe endure ; 1220
And leve on Mahounde, Jjat is so der*, 2
And thy life I shalle the ensure. 3
Thou shalt be a Duke in my contr',
And men haue at thyn owen wille. 1224
To my Sustir shaltowe wedded be,
1 MS. deistowe. 2 Head : ' free.' 3 MS. ensuce.
which he throws
into the river.
him that they
to a wounded
man, and that he
for their loss with
He strikes at
wards off the
blow with his
shield, but his
steed is killed
starts up and
tries to kill his
and ties it to a
"Yield thyself to
Mahound, and I
make thee a
duke in my
and give thee
THEY TAKE BREATH. OLIVER DECLARES HIS NAME.
" Ere I yield to
shall feel my
They fight for a
the blood ran
from both their
they stop to take
name and kin.
" Thou must be
one of the douze-
peers, as thou
fightest so well."
" I am Olirer,
*' Thou art
says Ferumbras ;
" thou slowest my
It were pite the for to spille ! "
" Better " quod. Olyuer* " skul we dele,
By God that is in magiste, 1228
And of my strokes shaltow more fele,
Er I to the shalle yelde me."
Thai smeten togeder with egre mode,
And nathir of othire dradde ; 1232
Thai persed her* hauberkes, that were so goode,
Tille both thayr bodyes bladde.
Thay foughten soo longe, fat by assente
Thai drewe hem a litil bysyde, 1236
A litil while thaym to avente,
And refresshed hem at J?at tyde.
" Generis" qtiod. Ferumbras,
" As thou arte here gentil knighte, 1240
Telle me nowe here in this place
Of thy kyn and what thou) hight ;
Me thenkith by the now evermore,
Thou shuldist be one of the xij peris, 1244
That maiste fighte with me so sore,
And arte so stronge, worthy and fiers."
Olyuere answered to hym agayn :
" For fer> I leve it not ontoolde, 1 248
My name is Olyuere certayn,
Cousyn to kynge Charles the boolde,
To whome I shalle the sende
Qwikke or dede this same daye, 1252
By conqueste here in this feelde,
And make the to renye thy laye."
" " qwod Ferumbras than to Olyuer 1 ,
" Welcome thou) arte in-to this place, 1256
I have desyrede many a yere
To gyfe the harde grace.
Thou slough my u uncle Sir Persagyiie,
The doughty kinge of Italy e, 1260
The worthyeste kinge J)at lyued of men,
OLIVER RECEIVES A HEAVY BLOW. 37
By Mahounde, thou shalt abye ! " now thou shait
Tho thai dongen faste to-geder* penalty i
While the longe day endured, 1264 The fight
hither* and nowe tinder* ; whole day.
Fro strokes wytfr sheeldes here bodies }>ai couered.
And at the laste Olyuei* smote him so At last Oliver,
Vppon the helme, J?at was of stele, 1268 Ferumbras upon
the helmet, has
That his swerde brake in two. his sword
, , , , , broken.
Tho wepen had he nevere a dele.
Who was woo but Olyuere than 1 ?
He saugh noone other remedy. 1272
He saide " sir 1 , as thou) arte gentile man,
On me nowe here haue mercy.
It were grete shame I-wis,
And honur ) were it noon, 1276
To sle a man wepenles ;
That shame wolde never* goon."
" Nay traitow, thou getiste noon.
Hade I here an hundred and moo ! 1280
Knele down and yelde the here anoon,
And eles here I woole the sloo."
Olyuer* saugh, it wolde not be,
To truste to moch in his grace. 1284
He ranne to the stede, bat stode by the fav?, He ran to the
steed at the tree
A swerde he raught in bat place, and seized a
sword that was
That was trussed on Ferumbras stede, hanging there ;
Of fyne stele goode and stronge. 1288
He thought he quyte l Ferumbras his mede.
Almoost hadde he abyde to longe ;
For in turnynge Ferumbras him smote, [leaf 32]
but in turning on
That stroke he myghte welle fele, 1292 Ferumbras he
, , received a blow
It come on hym so hevy and hoote,
That down it made hym to knele. that made him
Tho was Olyuer 1 sore ashamede
And saide "thou cursed Sarasyne, 1296
1 See the note.
CHARLES PRAYS TO GOD.
Oliver on his
prayed to Christ
that he might
grant the victory
over the Pagan.
that his prayer
Thy proude pride shall be atamed,
By God and by seinte Qwyntyne.
Thou hast stole on me that dynte,
I shall quyte the thyn hire." 1300
A stroke than Olyuer 1 him lente,
That hym thought his eyen wer* on fiY.
Kinge Charles in his pavilon was
And loked towarde J?at fyghte 1304
And saugh, howe fiers Ferumbras
Made Olyuere knele down right.
Wo was him tho in his herte ;
To Ihesu Criste he made his mone ; 1308
It was a sight of peynes smerte,
That Olyuere kneled so sone :
" Lord, God in Trinite,
That of myghtis thou) arte moost, 1312
By vertue of thy maieste
That alle knoweste and woste,
Lete not this hethen man
Thy seruawnte ouercome in fyght, 1316
That on the bileve ne kan,
Ihesu, Lorde, for thy myghte !
But graunte thy man the victorye,
And the Paynyni skomfited to be, 1320
As thou arte Almyghty God of glorye !
Nowe mekely, Lorde, I pray to the."
To Charles anoone an Aungel came
And broght him tidingges sone, 1324
That God had herde his praier 1 thafi
And graunte him his bone.
Tho Charles thanked God aboue 1
With herte and thought, worde and dede, 1328
And saide " blessed be thou), lorde almyghty, 1
That helpiste thy seruaimte in nede."
These Champions to-gedir thai gone
'_ See the note.
FERUMBRAS BEING WOUNDED CRIES MERCY.
With strokes grete and eke sure,
Eche of hem donge othir on,
Alle the while thai myghte endur*.
Ferumbras brake his swerde
On Olyueris helme on hye.
Tho wexe he ful sore a-ferde ;
He ramie for an othir redyly
And saide " Olyuere, yelde the to me
And leve thy Cristeii laye,
Thou shalte have alle 1 my kingdome free
And alle aftir my daye."
"Fye, Saresyne" qwod Olyuere than,
" Trowest thou, that I were wode,
To forsake him, ]?at made me man
And boght me with his hert blode."
He raught a stroke to Ferumbras,
On his helme it gan down glyde,
It brast his hawberke at J?at ras
And carfe hym throughe-oute his syde,
His bare guttis men myght see ;
The blode faste down ranne.
" Hoo, Olyvere, I yelde me to the,
And here I become thy man.
I am so hurte, I may not stonde,
I put me alle in thy grace.
My goddis ben false by water and londe,
I reneye hem alle here in this place, 2
Baptised nowe wole I be.
To Ihesu Crist I wole me take,
That Charles the kinge shal sene, 3
And alle my goddes for-sake.
Take myn hawberke and do it on the,
Thou shalte haue fuH grete nede.
1332 They begin
TOO* breaks his sword
lOOO on Oliver's
He runs for
another and asks
Oliver to sur-
blow which cuts
his hauberk, so
that his bowels
are laid bare.
consents to be
him to take his
1 Probably an error for 'half.'
3 In the margin the Scribe adds .-'The merci Ladi helpe.'
3 See the note.
THE SARACENS RUSH OUT OP THE WOOD.
fetch his horse,
and to carry him
to his own tent.
But the Saracens,
who lay concealed
in the wood, rush
under an olive-
tree, and defends
with his sword,
Saracens many a
rushed into the
throng of the
enemy and slew
X thousande Saresyns waiten vppon me,
And therfore go take my stede.
Lay me to-fore the, I the praye,
And lede me to thy tente. 1368
Hye the faste forth in thy way,
That the Saresyns the not hente."
A-noon it was done, as he ordeynede,
And faste forth thai ryden. 1 1372
The Saresyns anone assembled,
For to haue with hem foghten.
Ferumbras saugft the feelde thore
Of Sarsynes fully filled ; 1376
Of Olyvere dradde he ful sore,
That Saresyns shulde him haue killed.
He praide, that he wolde let him down
" Vndir yonde Olyfe tree, 1 380
For if ye cast me down here, with hors shoon 2 .
Alle to-treden shalle 1 be."
He priked forth and layde him thar*, 2
Out of the horses trase, 1384
And with his swerde by-gan him wer*,
For amonge hem alle he was.
A Saresyn smote him with a spere,
That it brake on pecis thre ; 1388
His hauberke myght he not der>,
So stronge and welle I-wroght was he.
He hit J>at Saresyns with his swerde
Through the helme in-to the brayne. 1392
He made an other as sore aferde,
He smote of his Arme with mayne.
But than come Eoulande with Durnedale
And made way him a-bowte. 1396
He slowe hem down in the vale,
Of him hade thai grete dowte.
The prees of Saresyns was so stronge
1 Read : ' soghten.' 2 2 See the note.
ROLAND AND OLIVER ARE MADE CAPTIVES. 41
A-boute Eoulande that tyde. 1400
Thai slougheii his horsys with thronge, his horse being
killed by arrows
And dartis throwen on every syde. and darts,
Whan Eoulande was on his Fete, he fights on foot,
Than was he woo with-alle. 1404
Many of hem he felte yete
And dede to grounde made hem falle.
At the last his swerde brake, but his sword
Than hadde he wepyn noon, 1408
As he smote a Saresyns bake [leaf ss]
A-sundre down to the Arson.
Tho was he caught, he myght not flee, he is taken
His hondes thai bounden faste 1412
And lad him forth to here Cite, and led away.
And in depe prison they hem caste.
Olyuer* sawe, howe he was ladde,
A sorye man than was he ; 1416
Him hadde leuer to haue bene dede
Than suifren that myschief to be.
Smertly aftire he pursued tho, Oliver rides
To reskue his dere brother. 1420
The prees was so grete, he myghte not so,
It myghte be no othir,
Be he was cowjje 1 by veri j force
With LX of Astopartes. 2 1424
Thai hurte him foule and slough" his hors but his horse
being also killed,
With gauylokes and wyth dartis.
Yet on foote, ere he were foolde,
He slough of hem fiftene. 1428
He was not slayn, as god woolde,
But taken and bounded 3 w^tft tene. he is overpowered
Tho were taken to Lucafer, Both were
The proude kinge of Baldas, 1432 Lukaferof
Both Roulande and Olyuer*.
1 Read: 'caughte.' 2 Ascopartes.
3 MisiKritten for 'bounder/
CHARLES FINDS FERUMBRAfl.
and calls for a
but the Saracens
had fled with
and Charles is
obliged to turn
Under a holm tree
whom he is
going to put to
But on his
requesting to be
Charles took pity
Gladde was he of that cas.
Kinge Charles was in herte woo,
When he saughe his neucwes so ladde, ] 436
He cried to the Frenshmeii tho :
, " Reskue we these knyghtes at nede."
The kynge himselfe slough many one,
So dede the Barons bolde. 1 440
It wolde not bene, thai were agon,
Magre who so woolde.
The Saresyns drewe hem to here Cite,
Kinge Charles turned agayne. 1444
He saugfc under an holme tre,
Where a knight him seined lay slayn.
Thederward he rode with swerde in honde.
Tho he saugfi, he was alyve ; 1448
He lay walowynge vppon the sonde
With blody woundes fyve.
" What arte thow 1 " quod. Charlemayne,
" Who hath the hurte so sore ? " 1452
" I am Ferumbras " he saide certayfi,
" That am of hethen lore."
" fals Saresyn " qwod the kinge,
" Thou shalte have sorowe astyte ; 1456
By the I haue lost my two Cosynes,
Thyii hede shalle I of-smyte."
" gentil kinge " qiiod. Ferumbrase,
" Olyuere my maister me hight 1460
To be Baptised by goddis grace,
And to dyen a Cristen knighte.
Honur* were it noon to the
A discoumfite man to slo, 1464
That is connected and Baptized wolde be
And thy man bycomeii also."
The kinge hade pite of him than,
He toke him to his grace 1468
And assyned anooii a man
ROLAND AND OLIVER ARE BROUGHT TO THE SOUDAN. 43
To lede him to his place. led him to ins
tent, and ordered
He sende to him his surgyne a surgeon to
_ . _ attend him.
i o hele his woundes wyde. 1472
He ordeyned to him such medycyn,
That sone myght he go and ryde. He soon
The kinge commaunded bishope Turpyn
To make a fonte redye, 1476
To Baptise Ferumbras ]>erm
In the name of god Alrnygfrtye.
He was Cristened in j?at welle, and bishop Turpin
Floreyne the kinge alle him calle, 1480 by the name of
He forsoke the foule feende of helle
And his fals goddis alle.
Nought for than Femmbras But he continued
Alle his life cleped was he, 1484 Ferumbras aiihis
And aftirwarde in so wine place, Afterwards he
-, . T - t ~ . . was known as
Floreyne of Rome Cite. rioreynofRome
God for him many myracles shewed!,
So holy a man he by -came, 1488 on account of his
That witnessith" both lerned and lewde,
The fame* of him so ranne.
for to telle of Eoulande Roland and
And of Olyuere, that worthy wos, 1 1492 brought to tta
_ rt t Soudan, Laban
-A- 1 Howe thai were brougnt to jr bowdaft enquires their
iBy the kinge of Boldas.
The Sowdan hem sore affrayned,
"What ]?at here names were. 1496
Rouland saide and noght alayned :
" Syr Eoulande and sire Olyuere, They confess
Sevewea to Kinge Charles of Fraunce,
That worthy kinge and Emperoure, 1500
That nowe are takyn by myschaunce
To be prisoneres here in thy toure."
"" A, Olyuer 1 , arte thou here ?
That haste my sone distroyede, 1504
ROLAND AND OLIVER ARE IMPRISONED.
swears they shall
both be executed
the next morning
before his dinner.
advises him to
as hostages, and
to remember his
for whom they
The Soudan finds
her counsel good,
and orders his
but to leave them
And Bouland that arte his fere,
That so ofte me hatfc anoyed.
To Mahounde I make a vowe here,
That to morue, ere I do ete, 1508-
Ye shulle be slayn both qwik in fere,
And lives shalle ye bothe lete."
Tho saide maide Florepas :
" My fader so derewortfr and der 1 , 1512:
Ye shulle be avysed of this cas,
How and in what manere
My brothir, fat is to prison take,
May be delyuered by hem no we, 1516
By cause of these two knightes sake,
That bene in warde here with you).
Wherefore I counsaile you), my fader dere.
To have mynde of Sir Ferumbras. 1520
Pute hem in youre prison here,
Tille ye haue better space.
So that ye haue my brother agayn
For hem, Jiat ye haue here ; 1524
And certeyn elles wole he be slayn,
That is to you so lefe and dere."
" A, Floripp, I-blessed thou bee,
Thy counsaile is goode at nede, 1528
I wolde not leve my sone so free,
So Mahounde moost me spede,
For al the Eealme of hethen Spayne,
That is so brode and large. 1532'
Sone clepe forth my gaylow?' Bretomayne,
That he of hem hadde his charge,
" Caste hem in your prison depe,
Mete and drinke gyfe hem none, 1536
Chayne hem faste, J?at thay not slepe ;
For here goode daies bene a-gone."
Tho were thay cast in prison depe 1 ;
1 Read: ' dirke.'
FLOBIPAS COMPASSIONATES THEIR SUFFERINGS. 45
-Every tyde the see came inne. 1540 At high tide the
sea filled their
Thay myght not see, so was it myrke, deep ceils.
The watir wente to her chynne.
The salte watir hem greved sore, They suffered
much from the
Here woundis sore did smerte. 1544 salt water, from
. their wounds, and
Hungir and thurste greved heme yet more, from hunger..
It wente yet more nere here herte.
Who maye live withoute mete ?
vj dayes hadde thay riglit none, 1548 On the sixth day,
JX"er drinke that thay myght gete,
Bute loked vppon the harde stone.
So on a daye, as God it wolde,
Fioripas to hir garden wente, 1552 Fioripas, who was
. ., gathering flowers
To geder Floures in morne colde. in her garden,
Here maydyns from hir she sente,
For she herde grete lamentacion heard them
In the Prison, that was ther nye ; 1556
She supposed by ymagynacion,
That it was the prisoners sory.
She wente her 1 nerr* to here more,
Thay wailed for defaute of mete. 1560
She rued on hem anoon f ul sore, Moved to
She thought, how she myght hem beste it gete.
She spake to her Maistras Maragounde, she asks her
n i _ _ _ . governess Mara-
Howe she wolde the prisorieres fede. 1564 goundto i.eipher
The develle of helle hir confounde,
She wolde not assente to fat dede,
But saide " Damesel, thou arte woode, reminds
Thy Fadir did vs alle defende, 1568 command.
Both mete and drinke and othere goode [leaf 39]
That 110 man shulde hem thider sende."
Floripe by-thought hir on a gyie Fioripas, thinking
And cleped Maragounde anoon right, 1572 called to her
rr, , - , ., governess to come
lo the wyndowe to come a while to a window aa
And se ther a wonder syght :
" Loke oute " she saide " and see a ferr>
FLORIPAS KILLS THE GAOLER.
see the porpoises
looking out, is
pushed into the
Bretomayn to let
her see the
to complain to
having seized his
dashed out his
She then went to
tell her father,
she had surprised
the gaoler feeding
he prisoners and
The Porpais pley as thay were wode." 157$
Maragounde lokede oute, Floripe come ner 1
And shofed hire oute in to the flode.
" Go there " she saide " the devel the spede !
My counsail shaltowe never biwry. 1580
Who so wole not helpe a man at nede,
On evel deth mote he dye ! "
She toke with" hire maidyns two,
To Britomayne she wente hir waye 1584
And saide to him, she moste go
To viseteii the prisoneris that daye,
And saide " sir, for alle loues,
Lete me thy prisoneres seen. 1588
I wole the gife both" goolde and gloues,
And counsail shalle it been."
Brytomayne that lay lor kene
Answered to hir sone agayne 1592
And saide " Damesel, so mote I then,
Than were I worthy to be slayn.
Hath not youre Fader charged me,
To kepe hem from every wyght 1 1596
And yet ye wole these traytowrs see 1
I wole goo telle him Anoon right."
He gan to turne him anone for to go,
To make a playnte on Floripas. 1600
She sued him as faste as she myghte go,
For to gif him harde grace.
With the keye cloge, fat she caugfit,
With" goode wille she maute 1 than, 1604
Such a stroke she hym ther 1 raught,
The brayne sterte oute of his hede fan.
To hire Fader forth she gotfc
And saide " Sire, I telle you here, 1608
I saugh a sight, that was me loth",
Howe the fals Jaikwr fedde your prisoner 1 ,
1 Head: ( mente.'
THE SOUDAN GIVES THE PRISONERS INTO HER GUARD.
And how the covencmnte made was,
Whan thai shulde delyuered be ; 1612
Whereiore I slough" him with a mace.
Dere Fadir, forgif it me ! "
" My doghtir dere, that arte so free, 1
The warde of hem now gif I the. 1616
Loke, here sorowe be evere newe,
Tille that Ferumbras delyuered be."
She thanked her Fadere fele sithe
And toke her maydyns, and forth she goth", 1620
To the prisone she hyed hire swyth".
The prison dore vp she dothe
And saide " sires, what be ye,
That make here this ruly moone ? 1624
What you) lakkith, tellyth me ;
For we be here nowe alle alone."
Tho spake Eoulande with hevy chere
To Floripe, that was bothe gente and fre, 1628
And saide " lo, we two caytyfes here
For defaute of mete dede moste be.
vj dayes be comyn and goon,
Sith we were loked in prison here, 1632
That mete nor drinke hade we noon
To comforte with oure hevy cher 1 .
But woolde god of myghtes moost,
The Sowdon wolde let vs oute goon, 1636
We to fight with" alle his Ooste,
To be slayn in feelde anoon.
To murthir men for defaute of mete,
It is grete shame tille a kinge ; 1640
For every man most nedes ete,
Or ellis may he do no thinge."
Tho saide Floripe with wordes mylde,
" I wolde fayne, ye were now here, 1644
From harme skath 2 I wole you shelde,
Head : l trew.' 2 Head : ' harme & skathe.'
deliver them ;
wherefore she had
The Soudan gives
the prisoners into
proceeded to the
and promised co
from any harm.
CHARLES DESPATCHES GUY TO THE SOUDAN.
She let down a
and drew up both,
*nd led them to
There they ate,
took a bath,
and went to bed.
The Soudan knew
nothing of his
tells Guy that
lie must go
to the Soudan to
and of the relics
sents that a
messenger to the
And gife you mete with right gode cherV'
A rope to hem she lete down goon,
That aboveii was teyde faste. 1648
She and hir maydyns drewe J?er vppon,
Tille vp thay hadde hem at the last.
She led hem into here chambir dere,
That arrayed for hem was right wele, 1652
Both Roulande and Olyvere,
And gafe hem there a right gode mele.
And whan thay hadde eten alle her fille,
A bath for hem was redy there, 1 656
Ther-to thay went ful fay re and stille,
And aftyr to bedde with right gode cher\
Now Floripas chamber is here prisone,
Withouten wetinge of the Sowdon ; 1660
Thai were ful mery in that Dongeon,
For of hem wiste mafi never oone.
Now lete we hern be and mery make,
Tille god sende hem gode delyueraunce. 1664
Aftir the tyrne, fat thay were take,
What did Charles, the kinge of Fraunce,
Ther-of wole we speke nowe,
Howe he cleped forth Sir Gy 1668
And saide " on my message shaltowe,
Therf ore make the faste redy,
To bidde the Sowden sende me my Nevewes both
And the Eeleqes also of Rome ; 1672
Or I shal make him so wroth",
He shaH not wete what to done.
And by fat god, fat hath me wroght,
I shal him leve Towre ner Town. 1676
This bargan shal so dere be bought
In dispite of his god Mahoun."
DTJke Neymes of Bauer 1 vp stert than
And saide " Sir, hastowe no mynde, 1680
How the cursed Sow dan Laban
THE OTHERS REMONSTRATE, BUT MUST GO TOO.
Alle messengeris doth he shende 1
Ye haue lost inowe, lese no mo
Onworthily Olyuer* and Koulande."
"By god, and thou shalt with him go,
For al thy grete brode londe."
THo Ogere Danoys, J?at worthy man,
" Sir " he saide " be not wroth !
For he saitft south." " go thou) than !
By Gode thou shalte, be thou) never so loth."
" A Sire " quod Bery Lardeneys,
i\ " Thou) shalte hem se never more."
JL JL_" Go thou forth in this same rees,
Or it shalle the repente ful sore."
FOlk Baliante saide to the kinge,
" Liste ye youre Barons to lese ? "-
" Certis, this is a wondir thinge !
Go thou also, thou) shalte not chese ! "
ALeroyse rose vp anone
And to the kinge pan gan he speke
And saide " what thinke ye, sir, to done ? "
" Dresse the forth with hem eke ! "
MIron of Brabane spake an worde
And saide " Sir, thou maiste do J>y wille. 1704
Knowist thou not that cruel lorde,
How he wole thy Barons spille ? "
" Trusse the forth eke, sir Dasaberde,
Or I shalle the sone make !
For of all thinge thou arte aferde,
Yet arte thou) neyther hurte ner take."
BIsshope Turpyfi kneled adown
And saide " lege lorde, mercy ! "
The kinge him swore by seynt Symon :
" Thou goist eke, make the in hast redye ! "
BErnarde of Spruwse, J?at worthy knyght,
Saide " sir, avyse you) bette,
Set not of youre Barons so light,
CHARL. ROM. V.
and that they
ought to be
anxious not to
lose any more
Then said the
king, By god,
thou shalt go
Ogier the Dane
is ordered to
So arc Thierry
and Folk Baliant,
and Miron of
kneels down to
implore the king's
but he must go
as well as
THE SOUDAN ASSEMBLES HIS COUNCIL.
and Brier of
The knights take
leave and start.
Thou maiste haue nede to hem yette."
" Thou shalte goon eke for alle thy boost,
Haue done and make the fast yare !
Of my nede gyfe thou) no coost,
Ther-of haue thou right no care ! "
BRyer* of Mounte^, J>at marqwy^ bolde,
Was not aferde to him to speke.
To the kinge sharply he tolde,
His witte was not worth a leke :
" Woltowe for Angre thy Barons sende
To J>at Tiraunte, pat alle men sleith 1
Or thou doist for fat ende,
To bringe thy xij peres to the detft."
The kinge was wroth and swore in halle
By him, J?at boght him witfr his blode :
" On my messange shall ye gon alle !
Be ye never so wroth" or wode."
Thay toke here lefe and forth thay yede,
It availed not agayne him to sayne.
I pray, god gif hem gode spede !
Ful harde it was to comen agayn.
NOwe let hem passe in goddis name,
And speke we of the Sowdon,
Howe he complayned him of his grame,
And what that he myght beste done.
" Sortybraunnce and Bronlande 1 " seyde he,
" Of counsail ye be fulle wyse.
How shal I do to avenge me
Of kinge Charles, and in what wyse 1
He brennyth my Toures and my Citees,
And Burges he levethe me never oon.
He stroieth my men, my londe, my fees.
Thus shalle it not longe gOon.
And yet me greveth most of alle,
He hath made Ferumbras renay his laye.
1 See the note.
HE DESPATCHES XII MESSENGERS TO CHARLES.
Therfore my counselors I calle,
To remedy this, howe thay best maye.
For me were lever that he were slayn,
Thane he a Cristen hounde shulde be,
Or with Wolfes be rente and slayn,
By Mahounde myghty of dignyte."
To answerde Sortybraunce and Eroulande
And saide " gode counsaile we shal you) gyfen,
If thoue wilte do aftyr covenawnte,
It shal you) profit, while you) lyven.
Take xij knightis of worthy dede
And sende hem to Charles on message nowe.
A-raye hem welle in roial wede,
For thy honour* and for thy prowe.
Bidde Charles sende thy sone to the
And voyde thy londe in alle haste,
Or ellis thou shalt him honge on a tre,
As hye, as any shippes maste."
" Nowe by Mahounde " quod Laban,
" This counseil is both trewe and goode,
I shalle him leve for no man
To parforme this, though he wer* woode."
He did his lettris write in haste,
The knightes were called to goo Jjerwitn",
That thay hy^e hem to Charles faste
And charke 1 hym vppon life and lithe.
Forth thai ride towarde Mantrible pan,
In a medowe, was fayre and grene,
Thai mette with Charles messageris ten.
Duke Neymes axed hem, what thai wolde mene,
And saide " Lordynges, whens come ye ?
And whider ye are mente, telle vs this tyde."
" From the worthy Sowdon " than saide he,
" To Charles on message shalle we ride,
to send 12
knights, and to
1764 bid Charles
to give up
IT/?O Ferumbras and to
l/bfe withdraw from
1776 The knights are
1780 Near Mantrible
they meet with
i 17 o A m( l u i res whither
1764: they intend to go.
1 Sic in MS. Query 'charge.'
THE PEERS KILL THE SOUDAN S MESSENGERS.
the delegates of
cut off their
heads, which they
take with them
to present to the
The Soudan was
his message :
' God confound
Laban and all
and save Charles,
thee to send back
his two nephews
and to restore
Euel tithyngges we shalle him telle,
Fro Laban, that is lorde of Spayne. 1788
Farewele, felowes, we may not dwelle."
" A-byde " quod. Gy " and turne agayne.
We wole speke with you), er ye goon,
For we be messengeris of his. 1792
Ye shal aby everichone,
So God brynge me to blis."
Anoon here swerdes oute thay brayde
And smoten down right al a-boute. 1796
Tille the hethen were down layde,
Thai reseyued many a sore cloute.
Thai smyten of here hedes alle,
Eche man toke one in his lappe. 1800
Fal what so euer byfalle,
To the Soudon wole they trappe.
Tille thai come to Egremoure,
Thai stynte for no worldes thinge ; 1804
Anone thai fonde the Sawdan thore,
At his mete proudely sittynge,
And J>at maide fair 1 Dame Floripas
And xiiij princes of grete price 1808
And kinge Lukafer 1 of Baldas,
Thas was both bolde, hardy and wyse.
Doughty Duke Neymes of Bauer*
To the Sowdone his message tolde 1812
And saide "god, J>at made heven so cler*,
He saue kinge Charles so bolde
And confounde Laban and all his men,
That on Mahounde byleved, 1 18 1C
And gife hem evel endinge ! amen.
To morue, longe er it be even,
He coramaundith the vppon thy life
His Nevewes home to him sende, 1820
And the Religes 2 of Rome withoute strife ;
1 Read: ( byleven.' 2 Read: 'reliqes.'
THE PEERS ARE IMPRISONED IN FLORIPAS TOWER.
And cllis getist thou an evel ende !
xij lurdeynes mette vs on the waye ;
Thai saide, thay come streight fro the.
Thai made it both" stoute and gay ;
Here hed^6 here maistowe see.
Thai saide, thai wolde to Charles goon,
Evel tidingges him to telle.
Loo here here heddis euerychone,
Here soulis bene in helle."
" " quod. Lavane " what may this be,
To sunV this amonge my knights alle 1
To be rebuked thus here of the
At mete in myn owen halle !
To Mahounde myghty I make a vowe,
Ye shall be hanged alle ten,
Anoon as I have eten I-nowe,
In presence of alle my men."
Maide Floripas answered tho
And saide " my derworth Fadir der* !
By my counsaile ye shal not so,
Tille ye haue your Barons alle in fer*,
That thai may se what is the best,
For to delyuere my brother Sir Ferumbras.
And aftirward, if J?at ye liste,
Ye may gife hem ful evel grace."
" Gramercy, doghter, thou saieste welle,
Take hem alle into thy warde.
Do feter hem faste in Irefi and stele
And set hem in stray3te garde.
Thus was I neuer rebukede er nowe ;
Mahounde myghty gyfe hem sorowe !
Thay shalle be flayn and honged on a bowe,
Longe ere tynie 1 to morowe."
Florip toke these messangeris
And ladde hem vp in-to here tour 1 ,
1 Read : ' I dyno.' See the note.
produce the heads
of the Soudan's
vowed a vow
1836 that they should
all ten be hange I
as soon as he had
him to put off hia
a general council
of his barons had
determined on the
best way of the
1348 The Soudan
gives them into
the knights into
1856 lier tower, whore
FLORIPAS ENQUIRES AFTER GUY.
they were glad to
find Roland and
They told each
other how they
they dined off
bread and wine,
and then went to
day, Floripas asks
after Guy of
whom she had
loved for a long
time, and for
There thai founde two of here feris.
Thay thanked thereof god of honoure.
Tho sayde Duke Neymys of Bauer* :
"Gladde men we be no we here, 1860
To fynde Roulande and Olyuer*
In helthe of bodye and of goode cherV'
Thai kissed eche other with herte gladde
And thanked god of his grace ; 1864
And eche toolde othir, howe thay sped hadde,
And howe thay come in-to that place
By helpe of mayde Florip hire self,
" God kepe hir in honoure ! 1868
For thus hath she brought vs hider alle twelfe,
To dwelle in hir owen boure."
Tho thay wessh and wente to mete,
And were served welle ancl fyne 1872
Of suche goode, as she niyght gete,
Of Venyson, brede and gode wyne.
There thai were gladde and wel at ease ;
The Soudon ne wist it noght. 1876
Aftyr thay slepe and toke her ese,
Of no man than thay ne roght.
On the morowe Florip, that mayde fre,
To Duke Neymes spake in game : 1880
" Sir gentil knight," tho saide she,
" Telle me, what is your name."
" Whi axe ye, my lady dere,
My name here to knowe alle ? " 1884
" For he 1 spake with so bolde chere
To my Fadir yestirdaye in his halle. ,
Be not ye the Duke of Burgoyne, sir Gy,
Nevewe unto the kinge Charles so fre ? " 1888
" Noe, certes, lady, it is not I,
It is yondir knight, J?at ye may see."
" A, him have I loved many a day ;
' Sic in MS. Mead: 'ye.'
GUY CONSENTS TO TAKE HER FOR HIS WIFE.
And yet knowe I him noght.
For his loue I do alle that I maye,
To chere you) with dede and thought.
For his love wille I cristenede be
And lefe Mahoundes laye.
Spekith to him nowe for me,
As I you) truste maye ;
And but he wole graunte me his loue,
Of you) askape shalle none here.
By him, )>at is almyghty aboue,
Ye shalle abye it ellis ful dere."
Tho wente Duke Neymes to Sir Gye
And saide " This ladye lovetfc the,
For thy loue she maketfr us alle merye,
And Baptizede wole she be.
Ye shalle hir take to your wedded wife,
For alle vs she may saue."
" By God " quod Gye " fat gafe me life,
Hire wole I never haue,
Wyle I neuer take hire ner no woman,
But Charles the kinge hir me gife.
I hight him, as I was trewe man,
To holden it, while I lyve."
Tho spake Roulande and Olyuer 1 ,
Certyfyinge him of her* myschefe,
Tellinge him of the parelles, j>at ]?ay in wer*,
For to take this lady to his wedded wife.
" But thou) helpe in this nede,
"We be here in grete doute.
Almyghty god shalle quyte thy mede,
Elles come we nevere hewnys oute."
Thus thay treted him to and fro ;
At the laste he sayde, he wolde.
Floripas thay cleped forth tho ;
And brought fourth a Cuppe of golde,
Ful of noble myghty wyne,
whom she would
do all she could
lor their benefit,
and would be
if he would agree
to love her in
1904 Naymes tells Guy
to take her for
but Guy refuses,
as he never will
take a wife,
1912 unless she be
given him by
1924 so that he at
a golden cup of
56 LUKAFER VISITS THE PRISONERS.
[ieaf48j And saide "my loue and my lorde, 1928
Myn herte, my body, my goode is thyn,"
kissed him, And kissed him witfi that worde,
and requested And " sir " she saide " drinke to rue,
him to drink to
her after the As the Gyse is of my londe : 1932
fashion of her
country. And I shalle drinke agayn to the.
She also drinks to
him. As to my worthy hosbonde.
Thay clipped and kissed both in fere
They an make And made grete Joye and game, 1936
And so did alle, that were ther 1 ,
Thai made ful mery alle in same.
Tho spake Floripas to the Barons boolde
And saide " I haue armur 1 1-nowe ; 1940
Therfore I tel you), what I wolde,
And fat ye dide for your prowe.
For the Mowing To morue, whan my Fadir is at his souper 1 ,
Ye shalle come in alle attonys ; 1944
Loke ye spare for no fere,
Sle down and breke both bake and bones ;
Kithe you) knightis of hardynesse !
Ther is none helpe, but in this wyse, 1948
Then moste ye shewen youre prowes,
And wynne this Castel in this guyse."
Thai sayden alle, it was welle saide,
And gladde thay were of this counsaile. 1952
they aii prepare Here armur 1 was forth layde,
to assail the
Soudan at supper. At souper the Sowdon to assaile.
Lukafer comes Kinge Lucaf ere prayde the Sawdon,
to the Soudan
and asks leave to That he wolde gif him lysence, 1956
see the prisoners, .
in order to know lo the prisoners lor to goon,
the manner of m , , ,
their detention. To see the inaner of her presence.
He gafe him lefe, and forth he wente
Yp vnto Floripas Toure. 1960
To asspie the maner was his entenf,
Hem to accuse agayne honoure.
Whan he come, he founde the dore fast I-stoke,
HE TEACHES THEM A NEW GAME. 57
He smote there-on with his fist. 19G4 open with a blow
of his fist.
That the barr began to broke.
To make debate, wel him list.
" Who artowe " qwod Floripas x
" ])at maketh hex* sucfr araye l ? " 1968
"I am kinge Lucafere of Baldas, [leaf 493
The Sowdon sente me hidir in faye ;
To seen his prisoneris is my desire
And speke with hem everychon, 1972 Hetoidthem
To talke with hem by the fire come to speak to
And speke of dedis of Armes amonge."
Tho saide Duke Neymes " welcome be ye
To us prisoners here ! 1976
What is your wille, nowe telle ye ;
For we be men of feble chere."
" I woolde wete of Charles the kinge, and to enquire
What man he is in his contre, 1980 Charlemagne.
And what meyne he hath, and of what thinge
He rekyneth moost his dignyte."
Duke Neymes saide " an Emperoure Duke Naymes
And kinge he is of many a londe, 1984 a '
Of Citeis, Castels, and many a Toure,
Dukes, Erles, Barons bowynge to his honde."
" But saye me, felowe, what is your vse,
To do in contr* aftyr the none. 1988 He then asks
,,,.,.. /, , what amusements
And what is the custome of your hous, they have after
Tille men to souper shalle gone ? "
" Sir, somme men iouste 2 with sper* and shelde, Naymes says,
And somme men Carol and singe gode songes, 1992
Some shote with dartis in the feelde,
And somme play at Chesse amonge."
" Ye bene but foulis of gode dissporte ;
I wole you) tech a newe play. 1996 'iwiii teach you
ci-i. i i T a new game,' says
bitte down here by one assorte, Lukafer.
1 These two lines are written as one in the MS.
3 MS. iuste.
LUKAPER IS ROASTED TO CHARCOAL.
With a thread he
fastened a needle
on a pole and
put a burning
coal upon it.
He blew it at
and burnt it.
from the fire
he smites at
throws him into
where he was
points out their
and advises them
At supper time
she goes to her
And better myrthc never ye sayc."
He teyde a tredde on a pole
With an nedil ther-on I-fest, 2000
And ther vppoii a qwik 1 cole.
He bade every man blowe his blast.
Duke Neymes hade a long berde,
Kinge Lucafer* blewe even to hym, 2004
That game hade he never before lered.
He brent the her* of Neymes berde. to the skync.
Duke Neymes than gan wex wroth",
For he hade brente his berde so white 2008
To the Chymneye forth he goth
And caught a bronde him with" to smyte.
With a goode wille he him smote,
That both his eyen bresten oute. 2012
He caste him in the fire al hote ;
For so the he hadde a right gode cloute.
And with a fyre forke he helde him doune,
Tille he were rosted to colis ilkadele. 2016
His soule hade his god Mahouii.
Florip bade him warme him wele.
" Sires " tho saide Floripas,
" Entendith nowe al to me ! 2020
This Lucafer> of Baldas
Was a lorde of grete mayne.
My Fadir hade him euer yn cher*
I telle you for so the every dele, 2024
He wolde anoon aftyr him enquer*,
And therefore loke, ye arme you weft ! "
Florip wente in, as the maner was,
To here Fadir at souper tyme. 2028
"No man spake worde of kinge Baldas,
Jtfer no man knewe of his sharp pyne.
The xij peris armed hem wel and fyne
With swerdes drawe and egr 1 chore. 2032
While thay uiery 1 drinkyng 1 the wyne
1 Miswrittcnfor 'were'?
THE PEERS TURN THE SARACENS OUT OP THE CASTLE. 59
And sittinge alle at here souper*. dtthi^auabie
Thai reheted the Sowdon and his Barons alle the twelve peers
rushed in and
And maden orders wondir fast, 2036 8 iew aii whom
Thai slowe down alle, J>at were in the halle,
And made hem wondirly sore a-gast.
Olyvere egerly sued Laban b ab oiiver Ur8Ued
With swerd I-drawe in his honde. 2040
Oute at the wyndowe lepte he ban jumps out of a
window on to the
Vppon the salte see stronde, 1 seu-shore and
And he skaped away from hime,
But woo was he Jjerfore, 2044
That he went awaye witfr lym without injury.
To worche hem sorowe more.
Roulande than came rennynge
And axed, where was Laban. 2048
Olyuere answerede moornynge [leaf si]
And saide, howe he was agoon.
Tho thai voided the Courtes at the last They killed all in
And slowen tho, that wolde a-byde, 2052
And drewe the brigge and teyed it fast,
And shitte the gatis, that were so wyde. 8hut the g ates -
Laban, that by the ebbe escaped e,
Of harde, er he come to londe, 205 G
He alle astonyed and a-mapide, 2
For sorowe he wronge botn" his honde
And made a vowe to Mahounde of myght, Laban vowed a
He wolde that Cite wynne 2060
And never go thens by day nor nyght,
For foo, for frende, ner for kynne.
" And tho traytouris will I do honge, that he would
hung them all
On a Galowes hye with-oute the gate ; 2064
And my Doghter. bat hore stronge, and burn his
I-brente shal be there-ate.
To mauntryble he gan sende anoon He sent to
Aftir men and tentis goode, 2068 troops and
1 MS. strowde. 3 Mead: 'a-wapide.'
THE SOUDAN BESIEGES THE CASTLE.
mends the peers
to enjoy them-
In the morning
but is repulsed.
And Engyncs to thro we with stoon
And goode armin-' many foolde.
The sege he did ley en a-bowte
On every side of that Cite. 2072
To wallis with Engynes thai gan rowte,
To broke the Toures so fre.
Tho saide Florip, " lordingges goode,
Ye bene biseged in this toure, 2076
As ye bene wight of mayne and moode,
Proveth here to sane youre honour 1 .
The toure is stronge, drede you) nought,
And vitayle we have plente. 2080
Charles wole not leve you) vnsought ;
Truste ye welle alle to me.
Therefore go we soupe and make merye,
And takith ye alle your ease ; 2084
And xxx* 1 maydens lo here of Assyne, 1
The fayrest of hem ye chese.
Take your sporte, and kith you) knyghtes,
Whan ye shalle haue to done ; 2088
For to morowe, when the day is light,
Ye mooste to the wallis goon
And defende this place with caste of stoon
And with shotte of quarelles and darte. 2092
My maydyns and I shall bringe goode wone,
So eueryche of us shalle bere hir parte."
On morowe the Sowdon made assaute
To hem, that were with-Inne, 2096
And certes in hem was no defaute,
For of hem myght thay nought wynne.
Here shotte, here cast was so harde,
Thay durste not ny$he the walle. 2100
Thay drowen hem bakwarde,
Thay were beten over alle.
King Laban turnede to his tentes agayn,
1 Read: 'Assye.'
HE ASKS BROULAND'S ADVICE.
He was nere wode for tene, 2104
He cryede to Mahounde and Apolyne
And to Termagaunte, fat was so kene,
And saide " ye goddes, ye slepe to longe,
Awake and helpe me nowe, 2108
Or ellis I may singe of sorowe a songe,
And of mournynge right I-nowe.
Wete ye not wele, that my tresoure
Is alle witfi-iune the walle ? 2112
Helpe me nowe, I saye therfore,
Or ellis I forsake you) alle."
He made grete lamentacion,
His goddis byganne to shake. 2116
Yet that comfortede his meditacion,
Supposinge thay didde awake.
He cleped Brenlande to aske counsaile,
What was beste to done, 2120
And what t hinge myght him moste avayle,
To wynne the Cite sone.
" Thou wotist welle, fat alle my tresour
Is there in here kepinge, 2124
And my doughter, fat stronge hore,
God yif her evelle endyng 1 ! "
" Sir " he saide " ye knowe welle,
That Toure is wondir stronge. 2128
While fay haue vitayle to mele,
Kepen it thay wole fulle longe.
Sende to Mauntreble, your* cheif Cite,
That is the keye of this londe, 2132
That non passe, where it so be,
With-oute youre speciall sonde,
To Alagolofur 1 , fat geaunte stronge,
That is wardeyne of fat pas, 2136
That no man passe that brigge alonge,
But he have special grace.
So shall e not Charles with his meyne
He accuses his
gods of sleepiness,
and shakes them
to wake up.
as the castle is
strong and well
stored with pro-
visions, the peera
will hold it very
but if he would
send orders to
not to allow any
one to pass
ESPIARD IS DESPATCHED TO MANTR113LE.
they would get no
and die from
not to suffer any
one to pass the
Reskowe than Agramoure. 2140
Than thay shalle enfamyched be,
That shalle hem rewe ful sore."
" Mahoundis blessynge have thou) and myne,
Sortybraunce, for thy rede." 2144
" Espyarde, messanger 1 myne,
In haste thou most the spede
To my Cite Mavntreble,
To do my message there, 2148
To Alogolofr 1 , j?at giaunte orrible.
Bydde him his charge wele lere,
And tel him, howe that the last daye
Ten fals traytowrs of Fraunce 2152
Passed by that same waye
By his defaute with myschaunce,
Charginge him vppon his hede to lese,
That no man by the brigge, 1 2156
Be it rayne, snowe or freze,
But he his heede down ligge."
Espiarde spedde him in his waye,
Tille he to Mauntrible came, 2160
To seke the geaunte, ther he laye
On the banke bysyde the Dame,
And saide " the worthy Sowdon,
That of alle Spayn is lorde and stf, 2164
Vppon thy life commaurideth the anoon,
To deserue better thyn hire.
The laste day thou) letist here passe
Ten trattoures of douse Fraunce. 2168
God gifte the evel grace,
And hem also moche myschaunce 1
He charged the vppon life and detfi,
To kepe this place sikerlye ; 2172
While in thy body lastetfr the bretR,
Lette noon enemye passe ther'-bye."
1 See tlie note.
ALAGOLAFRE BARRICADES THE BRIDGE.
Alagolofur rolled his yen
And smote with his axe on the stone
And swore by Termagcmnte and Apolyne,
That ther-by shulde passes never one,
But if he smote of his hede,
And brought it to his lorde Labafi,
He wolde never ete no brede,
]N"ere never loke more on man.
xxiiij* 1 Cheynes he didde ouer-drawe,
That noo man passe myght,
Neyther for loue nere for awe,
No tyme by daye, nere by nyghte.
" Go, telle my lorde, I shalle it kepe ;
On payne of my grete heede
Shalle ther no man goo ner crepe,
But he be take or dede."
This geaunte hade a body longe
And hede, like an libarde.
Ther-to he was devely stronge,
His skynne was blake and harde.
Of Ethiope he was bore,
Of the kinde of Ascopartes.
He hade tuskes, like a bore,
An hede, like a liberde.
Laban nolde not forgete
The saute to renewe, 1
To wynne the Toure, he wolde not lete.
Here trumpes lowde thay blewe.
Every man wente to the walle,
With pikeys or with bowe.
Thai made assaute generalle,
The walles downe to throwe.
But thay witfr-inne bare hem soo,
Thay slowe of the Saresyns iij hundred?.
Thay wroghten hem both care and woo,
1 These tmo lines are written as one in the MS.
24 chains across
2184 the bridge.
2200 castle again.
2204 [leaf 55]
but the 12 peers
slay 300 Saracens.
MAVON BATTERS THE CASTLE.
to hang them, and
The soudan calls
for Mavon, his
orders him to
direct a mangonel
against the walls.
a piece of the
Oliver lament :
they are com-
Vppon her fightinge thay wondride.
Tho cryed Laban to hem on hye,
" Traytowrs, yelde you) to me, 2212
Ye shall be hongede els by and bye
Vppon an hye Galowe tree."
Tho spake Florip to the Sowdon
And sayde " thou fals tyraunte, 2216
Were Charles come, thy pride wer* done
No we, cursede myscreaunte.
Alas ! that thou ascapediste soo
By the wyndowe vppon the stronde. 2220
That thy nek 1 hade broke a-tvvoo !
God sende the shame and shonde ! "
" A ! stronge hore, god gife the sorowe !
Tho[u] venemouse serpente. 2224
Withe wilde horses 1 thou) shalt be drawe to morowe,
And on this hille be brente,
That al men may be war 1 by the,
That cursed bene of kynde. 2228
And thy love shalle honged be,
His hondes bouwde him byhynde."
He called forth Mavon, his Engynour 1 ,
And saide "I charge the, 2232
To throwe a magnelle to yon tour 1 ,
And breke it downe on thre."
Mavon set vp his engyne
With a stoon of .vj. C wight, 2236
That wente as even as eny lyne,
And smote a Cornell down right.
Woo was Roulande and Olyuer*,
That fat myschief was be-falle, 2240
And so were alle the xij peres ;
But Florip than comforte hem alle :
" Sires " she saide " beith of goode chere !
This Toure is stronge I-nowe. 2244
1 See the note.
MARSEDAGE IS KILLED AND BURIED. rif)
He may cast twies or thries or lie hit ayen Jjer, 1 [leaf 56]
For sothe I telle it you).
Marsedage, the roialle kinge,
Rode in riche weede, 2248
Fro Barbary commyng,
Vppon a sturdy stede,
Cryinge to hem vppofi the walle :
" Traytowris, yelde you) here ! 2252
Brenne you alle ellis I shalle,
By myghty god lubyterV'
Gy aspied, that he came ner\ Guy wiis
A darte to hime he threwe ful even. 2256 king of Barbary,
He smote him throwe herte & liver in fer 1 . dart at him.
Dame Floripe lough with loude steven
And saide " Sir Gye, my loue so free,
Thou kanste welle hit the prikke. 2260
He shall make no booste in his contre ;
God giffe him sorowe thikke ! "
Whan Laban herde of this myschief 1 ,
A sory man was he. 2264
He trumped, his mene to relefe: They stop tiw
For to cease that tyme mente he.
Mersadage, kinge of Barbarye,
He did carye to his tente, 2268
And beryed him by right of Sarsenye to bury Marse-
VVith brennynge fire and riche oynemente,
And songe the Dirige of Alkaron,
That bibill is of here laye, 2272
And wayled his deth everychon, and bewail him
7 days and nights.
vij nyghtis and vij dayes.
AnOOfi the Sowdofi, SOUth tO Say, Then the soudan
bente nj hundrid of knightis, 2276 blockades the
To kepe the brigge and the waye
Cute of that Castil rightis,
That noon of hem shulde issue oute,
1 Sec the note.
CHARL. ROM. V. F
FLORIPAS PRODUCES A MAGIC GIRDLE.
forget fulness ;
cheers him up,
saying she pos-
sessed a magic
girdle which was
and thirst for
those who wore
They all suc-
cessively put it
on and felt as if
To feche vitayle by no waye. 2280
He charged hem to wacche wel aH abowte,
That thay for-famelid' myght dye.
Thus thay kepte the place vij dayes,
Tille alle hire vitaile was ny}e spente. 2284
The yates thai pas the streyte weyes.
Tho helde thai hem with-in I-shente.
Tho spake Roulande with hevy chere
Woordes lamentable, 2288
Whan he saugh the ladies so whi^te of ler ) ,
Faile brede on here table,
And saide " Charles, thou) curteys kinge,
Why forgetist thou) vs so longe? 2292
This is to me a wondir thinge ;
Me think itli, thou doiste vs grete wronge,
To let vs dye for faute of mete,
Closed thus in a dongeon. 22-96
To morowe wol we asaye what we kon gete,
By god, that berithe the crown."
Tho saide Floripas " sires, drede noghte
For noon houngr' that may befalle. 2300
I knowe a medycyne in rny thoughte
To comforte you) with. alle.
I have a girdil in my Forcer 5 ,
Who so girde hem ther-with aboute, 2304
Hunger ner thirste shal him neuer dere,
Though he were vij yere witfr-oute."
" " qziod Sir Gy " my loue so trewe,
I-blessed mote ye be ! 2308
I pray you), that ye wole us alle hit shewe,
That we may haue oure saule.
She yede and set it forth anoon,
Thai proved alle the vertue, 2312
And diden it aboute hem euerychoii.
It comforted alle both moo and fewe,
As thai hade bene at a feste.
MAPYN ENTERS FLORIPAS' CHAMBER.
So were thay alle wele at ease,
Thus were thai refresshed botfi moost & lest
And weren "bifore in grete disese.
Laban wondred, how thai myght endur 1
Witft-outen vitaile so longe.
He remewbred him on Floripas senctur*,
And of the vertue so stronge.
Tho wiste he welle, that throgh" famyne
Might he hem never wynne.
He cleped to him fals Mapyne,
For he coude many a fals gynne :
He coude scale Castel and Toure
And over the walles wende.
" Mapyne " he saide " for myn honoure,
Thou inooste haue this in mynde :
That hore, my doghter, a girdil hatn" she,
From hounger it savyth hem alle,
That wonnen may thay never be,
That foule mote hir bifalle !
Kanstowe gete me that gyrdill by craft,
A thousande pounde than shal I gefe the ;
So that it be there not lefte, 1
But bringe it hithir* to me.
Thou) kanste see by nyghte as welle
As any man doth by daye.
Whan thay bene in here beddes ful stiH,
Than go forth thider right in thy waye.
Thou shalt it in here Chamber fynde,
Thou maist be thereofe sure."
" Sir, there- to I wole me bynde,
If my life may endure."
Forth wente this fals Mapyne
By nyght into the Tour 1
God gife him evel endinge !
Euen in to Floripas bour 1 .
1 Read: 'lafte.'
at their endur-
but at last
to attempt to
steal it at night.
the chamber of
MAPYN WITH THE GIRDLE IS THROWN INTO THE SEA.
a chimney ;
he finds the
girdle and puts
and cries out.
to her assistance,
cuts off Mapine's
head, and throws
him out through
her girdle lost,
is much grieved ;
They agree to
attempt a sally
to obtain food.
By a Chemney he wente inne ;
Fulle stilly there he soughte it. 2352
He it fofcnde and girde it aboute him,
And aftyr ful dere lie bogfit it ;
For by the light of a lampe ther*
Floripas gan him aspye, 2356
Alle a-frayed oute of hir slepe for fere,
But lowde than gan she crye
And saide " a thefe is in my boure,
Robbe me he wole or sloo." 2360
Ther-with come Rouland fro his tour*
To wete of hir woo.
He founde Mapyne bysyde hir bedde,
Stondinge amased for drede, 2364
To the wyndowe he him ladde, 1
And there he smote of his hedde,
And caste him oute in-to the see.
Of the gyrdille was he not war 1 ; 2368
But whan he wist, the girdel hade he,
Tho hadde he sorowe and care.
Floripe to the Cheste wente
And aspyed, hire gyrdel was goon, 2372
" Alas ! " she saide, " alle is it shente !
Sir, what haue ye done ?
He hath my girdel aboute hym.
Alas ! fat harde while ! 2376
A rebelle hounde doth ofte grete tene ;
Howe be we alle begilede."
Tho spake Roulande with cher* boolde,
"Dameselle! beytfc noughte aferde ! 2380
If any vitaile be aboute this hoolde,
"We wole hem wynne withe dinte of swcrde
To morowe wole wee oute-goon
And assaye, ho we it wole it be. 2384
I make a vowe to god alone,
1 Sec the noie.
THE PEERS, SURPRISING THE SARACENS, OBTAIN PROVISIONS. 69
Assaile hem wole we !
And if thay haue any mete,
Parte withe hem wole we. 2388
Or elles strokes thay shal gete
By God and seynte Mary myn avour 1 ! l
In the morne. er the larke songe, in the morning
Thai ordeynede hem to ride 2392
To the Saresyns, J?at hade so longe
Leyen hem besyde.
Duke JSTeymes and Oger 1 Naymesand
Ogier remain in
Were ordeynede to kepe the place. 2396 thecastie,
The x othir of the xij peres Uie others start
Wente oute to assaye here grace.
Thay foimden hem in lodges slepynge, and surprise the
Of hem hade thay no thought. 2400 sleeping in their
Thai slowen down fat came to honde,
Mahounde availed hem noghte. [leaf 60j
In shorte tyme the ende was made,
Thay ten slough iij hundred ther ) . 2404 They slew soo
... an( i carried off as
Tho founde thai vitaile, thay were glad, much food as
. 1,11 they could bear.
As moche as thay myghte home bei .
Duke Neymes and Oger>, that kept the tour 1 ,
Say hem with here praye. 2408
Thai thanked god hye 'of honoure,
That thai spedde so J>at day.
Thay avaled the brigge and lete him yn,
Florip and here maydyns were gladde, 2412
And so were thay, that were with-yn ;
For alle grete hounger thay haddt?.
Thai eten and dronken right I-nowe
And made inyrth" ever amougu. 2416
But of the Sowdon laban speke we nowe,
Howe of sorowe was his songe.
WHan tidyngges came to him,
That his men were slayfi, 2420
And howe thai hade stuffed hem also 1
1 See the note.
THE SOUDAN IS ENRAGED WITH HIS GODS-
The soudan is
and is going to
bum bis gods,
and is assoiled by
With vitaile in agayne,
For sorowe he woxe nere wode.
He cleped Brenlande and Sortybraunce. 2424
And tolde hem with angry mode
Of his harde myschaunce.
" Kemedye ordeyne me,
Ye be chief of my counsaile ; 2428
That I of hem may vengede be,
It shalle you bouth availe.
ye goddes, ye faile at nede,
That I have honoured so longe, 2432
1 shalle you) bren, so mote 1 I spede,
In a fayre fyre ful stronge ;
Shalle I neuer more on you) bileve,
But renaye you) playnly alle. 2436
Ye shalle be brente this day er eve,
That f oule mote you) befalle ! "
The fire was made, the goddes were broght
To have be caste ther'-inne. 2440
Tho alle his counsaile him by-sought,
He shulde of fat erroure blynne,
And saide " Sir, what wole ye done ?
Wole ye your goddis for-sake ? 244V-
Vengeaunce shalle than on you) come,
With sorowe, woo and wrake !
Ye moste make offrynge for youre offence,
For drede of grete vengeaunce, 2448
With oyle, mylke and ffrankencense
By youre prestis ordynaunce."
Tho he dide bere hem in ayen,
And to hem made dewe offerynge. 2452
The prestis assoyled him of fat synne,
Ful lowly for him prayinge.
Tho he cleped his counselers
Brulande and Sortybraunce, 2456
1 MS. mete.
THE PEERS THROW LABAN's GOLD AT THE ASSAILANTS. 71
Axynge, ho we he myght destroys the xij peres,
That Mahounde gife hem myschaunce.
Thay cowde no more ther-on,
But late saile ayeii the toure. 2460
With xx 11 thousande thai gan goil,
And bigo?me a newe shoure A new assault
To breke down the Walles,
With mattokes and with pike, 2464
Tille iiii hundred of hem alle but the ditches
are filled with
Lay slayne in the dike. assailants, who
were slain by the
So stroiige was the cast of stoone. showers of stone*
~ , n hurled down by
The Saresyns drewe hem abakke, 2468 the peers.
, . The Saracens
Tille it was at hye none ; retire.
Tho go?me thay ayeii to shake. A second attack
Tho fay led hem cast, J?at were wtt/t-inne ; There being u>
Tho cowde thai no rede, 2472
For stoone was ther noone to wymie.
Tho were thay in grete drede.
Than saide Florip, " beith not dismayde !
Ye shalle be holpe anoon. 2476
Here is syluer vessel and now," l she sayde, rioripas gave
them her father's
" That shulle ye prove goode Avoon." silver and gold
to cast amongst
She set it forth, thay caste oute iaste the assailants.
Alle that came to honde. 2480 Pf
Off siluer and goolde vessel thay made waste
That wast 2 down vppon the sonde.
Whan thai saugh that roial sight,
Thai leften alle here dede ; 2484
And for the tresoure thay do fight,
Who so myghte it awey lede.
Tho the Sowdon wexe nere wode, Tfa e soudan in
alarm for his
Seinge this tresoure thus dispoyledl, 2488 treasure
That was to him so dere and goode
Laye in the dike thus defouled'.
He bade that thai shulde leue gives up the
1 ? I now. 2 It cad : 'went.'
THE SOUDAN ASKS HIS GODS* FORGIVENESS.
He is enraged
with his gods,
so that he fell on
his face ;
but the priests
to kneel down
and ask forgive-
And turne hem agayne in haste. 2492
He wente home tille his tente than
With grete sorowe and mournyng 1 mode.
To-fore his goddis whan he came,
He cryed, as he were wode : 2496
" fals goddis, that y e beth,
I have trustid to longe youre mode.
We 1 were lever* to sufiY dede,
Than lif this life here lenger no we. 2500
I haue almoste loste the bretfi,
xij fals traytozws me overe-lede,
And s troy en alle fat I haue.
Ye fals goddis, the devel youe spede ! 2504
Ye make me nowe for to rave ;
Ye do fayle me at my nede."
In Ire he smote Mahounde,
That was of goolde fulle rede, 2508
That he fille down to the grounde,
As he hade bene dede.
Alle here bisshopes cryderi oute
And saide " Mahounde, thyn ore ! " 2512
And down to the erthe wele lowe thay loute,
Howlynge and wepynge sore,
And saide " Sire Sowdon, what haue ye done 1
Vengeaunce shalle on the falle, 2516
But thou) repente the here anone."
" Ye " qwod he " I shrewe you) alle ! "
Thai made a fyre of frankincense
And blewen homes of bras, 2520
And casten in milke hony for the offence,
To-fore Mahoundes face.
Thay counsailed Laban to knele a down
And aske forgevenes in that place. 2524
And so he didde and hade pardon
Throgh prayere and specialle grace.
1 ? Me.
RICHARD STARTS ON MESSAGE TO CHARLES. tS
Then l this was done, ban sayde Eoulande Meanwhile
To his Felowes xj : 2528
u Here may we not longe holde londe,
By God that is in he veil.
Therefore sende we to Charles, the kinge,
That he wolde reskowe vs sone ; 2532
And certyfye him of 1 oure straygte beinge, exhorted Richard
of Normandy to
If ye thinke, it be to done. go on message to
Charles, that he
Kichard of Normandye, ye most goon, might come to
I holde you) both wyse and hende. 2536
And we shalle tomorowe, as stil as stoon, They an would
The Saresyns a- wake, er ye wynde. 2 morning, before
, day break, make
And while we be mooste bysy in oure werke, an attack on the
And medel with hem alle in fere, 2540 meanwhile he
should steal off in
Stele ye a-waye in the derke ! _ the darkness.
And spede you faste, ye were there ! "
On the morowe aftir* the daye in the morning
Thay w r ere armede ful ryghte, 2544
Thai rode forth stilly in here way, they saiiy out.
God gouerne hem, mooste of myght !
Floripe and here maydyns kept the tour* Fioripas and her
maidens draw up
And woonde vp the brigges on hye, 2548 the bridges after
And prayde god, to kepe here paramour 1 ,
The Duke of Burgoyne, Sir Gye.
She preyde to Rouland, er he wente,
To take goode hede of him, 2552
That he were neyfer take nere shente,
As he wolde her loue wynne.
On thay set with herte stronge
And alle hem sore afrayed. 2556
Richard the whiles away he wronge, Richard went oa
Thile 3 thai were alle dismayede. MantrtbU.
Towarde the Mountrible he hyed him faste,
To passe, if that he myghte. 2560
Thedir he came at the laste.
1 ?'When.' * Mead: 'wende.' 3 ?' while.'
GUY IS MADE PRISONER.
The others slay
many Saracens ;
Laban asks his
Guy tells him.
He is to be
the gate of the
prevent the other
A fearful struggle
God kepe him for his mocli myght 1
His xij i felowes besyed hem soo
That many of hem thay sloughe. 2 2564
Gye slowe the kinge of Babyloyne tho ;
The Babyloynes of his hors him drowe,
And with force him drowe there
And bounde his hondes fill fast. 2568
A newe game thai gan him lere,
For in depe prison thay him caste.
But Laban wolde him first se,
To wete what he was. 2572
" Telle me thy name iiowe " qod he,
" Thy songe shalle be ' alas.' "
" Sire " he saide " my name is Gye,
I wole it never forsake. 2576
It were to me grete vilanye
An othir name to take."
" fals tray tow " qwod Labaii,
" My doghtir, J>at stronge hore, 2580
Hath me for-sake and the hath tan,
Thou) shalte be honged therfore."
Roulande made grete moone,
It wolde noon other be. 2584
Homwarde thai gan goon,
.iij.c Saresyns ther saye he,
That kepte the pace at the brigge-ende,
Armed wel in goode araye, 2588
That thai sholde not in wende,
But be take or slayfi pat daye.
Roulande to his felowes saide :
" Beth alle of right gode chere ! 2592
And we shal make hem alle afrayde,
Er* we go to oure soupere."
There byganne a bykeringe bolde
Of x Bachelors that tyde, 2596
1 ? xj. 2 See the note.
BRYER IS SLAIN.
Agayne iijc men I-tolde,
That durste righte wel a-byde.
Tho was Durnedale set a werke,
XL of hethen he sloughe, 2600
He spared ne^er* lewde ner clerke,
And Floripas thereof loughe.
The shotte, the caste was so stronge,
Syr Bryer was slayn there
With dartes, gauylokes and speres longe,
xx" on hym there were.
Roulande was woo and Olyuer*,
Thay sloughen alle that thai mette. 2608
Tho fledde the Turkes alle for fer>,
Thay durste no longer lette
And saide, thai wer 1 no men,
But develis abroken oute of helle, 2612
" .iij. hundred of vs agayn hem ten.
Oure lorde Mahounde hem qwelle !
XL of vs here be ascaped,
And hardde we be bistadde." 2616
" Who so wole of hem more be iaped,
I holde him worsse than madde."
Tho Roulande and Olyuer*
Madeii grete woo and sorowe, 2620
And token the corps of Sir Bryere
And beryed it on the morowe.
Floripe asked Roulande anoone
" Where is my loue Sir Gye 1 "
" Damesel " he saide "he is goon,
And therfore woo am I."
" Alas " she saide " than am 1 dede,
Towe Gye my lorde is slayn,
Shall I neuer more ete brede
Tille that I may se him agayn."
" Be stille " qwod Roulande " and haue no car 1 .
We shal hym haue ful wele. 2632
2604 Sir Bryer ii
At last the
Saracens take to
The peers retire
inside the castle,
taking the corpse
of Bryer with
2624 Floripas enquires
and on hearing
of his capture,
2628 begins to lament
to rescue Guy.
GUY IS GOING TO BE HANGED,
On the following
Tamper to erect
before the castle,
could see it.
Guy is led
Roland calls his
They rush forth.
Tomorowe wele we fchiderward far*
With spere and shelde of stele.
But we bringe him to this Tour*
Leeve me elles no more 2636
With victorye and grete honour 1 ,
Or thay shalle abye it ful sore."
On the morowe, whan tha daye was clere,
Laban ordeynede Gye honged to be. 2640
He cleped forth Sir Tampere
And badde him do make a Galowe tre, '
" And set it even by-fore the tour 1 ,
That Jrilke hore may him see ; 2644
For by lord Mahounde of honour 1 ,
This traitcwr there shalle honged be.
Take withe the .iij. hundred knightes
Of Ethiopia, Indens and Ascopartes, 2648
That bene boolde and hardy to fight
With Wifles, Fauchons, Gauylokes l and Dartes ;
Leste fat lurdeynes come skulkynge oute,
For ever thay haue bene shrewes. 2652
Loke eche of hem haue such a cloute,
That thay neuer ete moo Sewes."
Forth thay wente with Sir Gye,
That bounde was as a thefe faste, 2656
Tille thay come the towr 1 ful nye ;
Thai rered the Galowes in haste.
Roulande perceyued here doynge
And saide " felows, let armes 2 ! 2660
I am ful gladde of here comynge,
Hem shall not helpe her charmes."
Oute thai rideh a wele gode spede,
Thai ix towarde hem alle. 2664
Florip with here maydyns toke gode hede,
Biholdinge over the tour* walle.
Thai met first with Sir Tamper 1 ,
1 JUS. Gamylokes. 2 Read: ' as armes.'
BUT IS RESCUED BY ROLAND AND OLIVER. 77
God gife him evelle fyne ! 2668
Such a stroke lente hym Olyuer*, Oliver cuts down
He clefe him down to the skyne.
Eouland bare the kinge of Ynde Roland kills a
king of Indiii.
Ther with his spere frome his stede. 2672
.iiij. fote it passed his bak byhynde,
His herte blode Jjer 5 didde he blede.
He caught the stede, he was ful goode, takes ins sword
And the swerde, }>at the kinge hadde, 2676
And rode to Gye, there he stode, [leaf e?]
And onbounde hym and bade him be gladde. and gives them
And girde him with tha.t goode swerde, having unbound
And lepen vppon here stedes. 2680
" Be thou " he saide " righte nought a-ferde,
But helpe vs wightly at this nede."
An hundred of hem sone thay slowe They slay many
Saracens, and put
Of the beste of hem alle ; 2684 the rest to
The remencmnte a-way fast thay flowe,
That foule motte hem byfalle !
Eouland and his Felowes were glad
That Gye was safe in dede. 2688
Thay thanked god, that thay 1 him hadde
Gyfen thaye r such grace to spede.
As thay wente towarde the Tour 1 , Retiring towards
A litil bysyde the hye waye, 2692
Thai saugh comynge with grete vigour*
An hundred vppon a laye. 2
Costroye ther was, the AdmyraH, they see admiral
With vitaile grete plente, 2696
And the stondarte of the Sowdofi EoiaL and the soudan's
, ., . ,_-, standard-bearer
lowarde Mauntnble riden he, escorting a
.iiij. Chariotes I- charged with flessh and brede,
And two other* with wyne, 2700
Of divers colouris, yolowe, white and rede,
And iiij Somers of spicery fyne.
1 See the note. ' 2 MS. ' alaye.' Ste the note.
THE PEERS LAY HOLD OP A CONVOY.
Roland calls to
to share the
Tho saide Roulande to Olyuer* :
"With these meyne moste we shifte, 2704
To haue parte of here vitailes her*,
For therof us nedith by my thrifte."
" Howe, sires " he saide " god you see !
We pray youe for youre curtesye, 2708
Parte of your Yitaile graunte me,
For we may nother borowe ner bye."
Tho spake Cosdroye, that Admyral,
costroye refuses, " Ye gete none here for nogfrt. 2712
Yf ye oght chalenge in speciaft,
It most be dere I-boght."
K gentil knightes" quod Olyuere,
" He is no felowe, J>at wole haue alle." 2716
"Go forth" quod the stondart, "thou) getist noon here,
Thy parte shalle be fulle smalle."
[leaf 68] "Forsoth" quod. Eoulande "and shift we wole,
Ge;te the better, who gete maye ! 2720
To parte with the nedy it is gode skille,
And so shalle ye by my faye."
He rode to the Admyral with his swerde
And gafe him suche a cloute, 2724
JSTo wonder thogh he were aferde,
Both his ey^en braste oute.
Olyuere met withe the proude stondarde,
He smote him through the herte. 2728
That hade he for his rewarde ;
That wounde gaii sore smerte.
Thai were slayn, that wolde fight
Er durste bikure abyde. 2732
Thai forsoke her parte anoon right,
It lefte alle on that on side.
Forth thai drewen )>at vitaile
Streight in-to the Toure. 2736
There was no mail durst hem assayle.
For drede of here vigour 1 .
and is slain by
Oliver kills the
The convoy is
conveyed into the
THE SOUDAN DEFIES HIS GODS. 79
Floripe hem resceyved vrit/i honour*
And thanked Eoulande fele sythe, 2740 Fionpas thanks
That she saugfr Gye hir paramour 1 , bringing back Sir
That wolde she him qwite and kithe.
Thai eten and dronken and made hem gladde,
Hem neded ther aftyr fulle sore 2744
Of suche, as god hem sente hade,
I-nowe for iiij moonjjes and more.
Florip saide to Roulande than, and proposes that
_ lie shall choose
" Ye moste chese you a love L 474o himself a
, . . mistress from
Of alle my maydyns, white as swan. amongst her
Qwod Rouland " Jjat were myscheve ;
Oure lay wole not, fat we with, youe dele, any thV
Tille that ye Crtstyn be made ; 2752 Christian.
Ner of your play we wole not fele,
For than were we cursed in dede."
"Owe shall ye here of Laban. The soudan, on
Whan tidyngges to him wer* comen, 2756 **
Tho was he a fulle sory man.
Whan he herde, howe his vitaile were iiomefi,
And howe his men were slayne,
And Gye was go safe hem froo, 2760 [ieaf69]
He defyed Mahounde and Apolyne, again defies his
lubiter, Ascarot and Alcaron also.
He cowmaundede a fire to be dight and threatens to
With picche and Brymstofi to bren. 2764 the flames.
He made a vowe with alle his myglit,
" Thai shal be caste ther-Inne ! "
The prestes of her* lawe ther-oii,
Thai criden oute for drede 2768
And saide " alas, what wole ye done ?
The worse than moste ye spede ! "
The Sowdon made a grete othe
And swore by his hye trone, 2772
That though hem were never so loth,
1 Read ; ' leva.'
RICHARD ARRIVES AT MANTRIBLE.
before him and
makes an offering
of 1000 besants to
as far as
found the bridge
barred by 24
to leave his
he knelt down
himself to God.
4 hind appears
Thai sholde be brente Ichon.
Tho caine the bisshope Cramadas
And kneled bifore the Sowdon, 2776
And charged him by the hye name Sathanas,
To saven his goddes ychon :
" For if ye brenne youre goddes her 5 ,
Ye wynnyn her malison, 2780
Than wole no man do you) cher 1 ,
In feelde, Cite, nei j in town."
The Sowdon was astonyed fan
And gan him sore repente 2784
Of the foly, that he bygan,
And els hade he be shente.
A thousande of Besauntes he offred faym to,
By counsail of sir Cramadas, 2788
To please with" his goddys tho,
For fere of harde grace.
The Sowdone co??zmaunded euery daye
To assaile thejtour 1 with" caste. 2792
But thay with-in gafe not an Eye,
For thai wroghte in wast.
"% ~T~Owe speke we of Richarde of Normandy,
\^ That on message was sente, 2796
JL_ 1 Howe he spede and his nieyne.
Whan he to Mauntrible wente,
He founde the brigge Ichayned sore ;
xxiiij" were ouere-drawen. 2800
Alagolofure stode there byfore,
That many a man hade slawene.
Whan Richard saugh", ther was no gate,
But by flagot the ftode, 2804
His message wolde he not lete ;
His hors was both" bigge and goode.
He kneled, bisechinge god of his grace,
To save him fro myschiefe. 2808
A white hcnde he saugh" anoon in fat place,
RICHARD CROSSES THE RIVER AND OVERTAKES CHARLES. 81
That swam over 5 the cliffe. and swims
He blessed him in godis name
And folowed the same wave 2812 Richard follows
her, and, passing
The gentil hende, J?at was so tame, over in safety,
That on J)at othir side gan playe.
He thanked god fele sythe,
That him hade sente comforte. 2816
He hied him in his message swi be, hurries on to
To speke with" Charles his lorde.
But I shalle you) telle of a trayto?//',
That his name was called Genelyne, 2820
He counseiled Charles for his honour* Memwhiie
To turne homewarde ageyn. traitor, had
He saide "the xij peres bene alle dede, to retire to
And ye spende your goode in vayne, 2824 because the 12
i t 1 e i .- i i peers were all
And therfore dotn nowe by my rede, Blain .
Ye shalle see hem no more certeyn."
The kinge bileved bat he saide, The king
believed him, and
And homwarde gan he fare. 2828 marched home-
r-r p i -r\ T 3 ward, lamenting
He of his xij Dosiperes was sore dismayed, for h: 8 peers.
His herte woxe right f ulle of car 1 .
Evcharde of Normandy came prikande Richard overtakes
him, and is
And hertly to ride begane. 2832 recognised by
Kinge Charles aspyed him comande ;
He commaunded to abide Query man.
" What tidings^?" quod, the kinge to Eicharde. who asks him
about the others.
" Howe fare my felowes alle 1 " 2836
"My lorde" he saide "god wote, ful harde, Richard teiis the
king, how they
For thai be byseged with-in ston-walle, are besieged
. . , , , x , within the castle,
Abydynge youre helpe ana your socour', and are waiting
As men fat haue grete nede. 2840 for his assistance '
For Ihesues loue, kinge of honour 5 ,
Thiderward ye you) spede ! "
" Genelyne " qwod the kinge, Charles, vowing
" Kowe knowe I thy treson, 2844 [leaf ?ij
I shalle the qwite, be seynte Fremouude,
CHARL. ROM. V. Q
CHARLES MARCHES TO AGREMORE.
him of the giant,
who kept the
and how he had
passed the river
by a miracle.
He proposed a
that 12 knights
their arms hidden
should pay the
and the bridge
being let down,
should blow a
as a signal for the
They start and
"VVhan this viage is don."
The kinge turned him ageyn,
And alle his Ooste him witH, 2848
Towarde Mountrible certeyne.
And 1 graunte him gree and grith !
Richarde him tolde of that place,
Howe stronge it was I-holde 2852
With a geaunte foule of face,
The brigge hath chayned many folde ;
The Eiver was both depe and brode, :
Ther myght no man over-ryde. 2856
" The last tyme that I over-rode,
By myracle I passed J>at tide.
Therfore sir, I shal you) telle,
Howe ye mote governe you) here. 2860
In yonde wode ye moste dwelle
Priuely in this maner*,
And xij of vs shalle vs araye
In gyse of stronge marchauntes, 2864
And fille oure somers withe fog and haye,
To passe the brigge. Currauntes.
We shalle be armed vnder the cote
With goode swerdes wele I-gyrde, 2868
We moste paye tribute, wele I wote,
And elles over we may not sterte.
But whan the chaynes be lete down
Ouer ther for to passe, 2872
Than wole I, ]>at ye come on,
In haste to that same place.
Whan I see tyme for to come,
Than shalle I my home bio we. 28 7G
Loke, ye be redy alle and some,
For that shall ye welle knowe."
Forth thay wente in J>at araye
To Mountrible, that Cite. 2880
1 Read: 'God.'
THE BRIDGEWARD OP MANTRIBLE REFUSES TO LET THEM PASS. 83
Alagolof ur ) to hem gan seye, Aiagoiafre asks
whither they are
" Felawes, wheder wole ye ? going.
Richarde spake to the geaunte
And saide " towarde the Sowdon, 2884 Richard says,
thsy arc ni6r -
With dyufelrs chaffer* as trewe marchaunte, chants on their
way to the
We purpose for to goon, Soudan,
To shewen him of pellur* and Gryse, 1
Orfrays of Perse Imperyalle, 2888 [leaf 723
We wole the yefe tribute of assaye and the y are
willing to pay the
To passe by lycence in especyaH." to11 -
" Licence gete ye noon of me, 2 Aiagoiafre
refuses to let
I am charged that noone shall passe, 2892 them pass,
For x lurdeyns of Fraunce were her* : and teiisthei
about the 10
God yefe hem evell grace ! knights,
Thay passed this way to Egramour' ; who had passed
there and done sc
Thay haue done the Sowdon grete tene, 2896 much mischief
to the Soudan ;
lhay have wonne his toure and his tresour,
And yet holde thai it, I wene.
Wherf or*, f elawes, I arest you) alle, therefore he will
arrest them all.
Tille I knowe, what )>at ye bene." 2900
Sire Focarde brayde oute his swerde with-alle, sir Focard draw*
his sword and
Wei sore he gan to tene
And saide " fye on the Sarasyne !
For alle thy grete harde hede 2904
Shaltow never drinke water ner wyne,
By god ! thou shalte be dede."
He smote at him with egre chere smites at him.
But he gafe thereof right nought. 2908
" Alas " qwod Richard " thou combrest vs her*,
By god, that me der* hath boghte."
The cheynes yet wer* alle faste,
The geaunte wexe nere wode, 2912
Eichard blewe his home in haste, Richard blows
That was both shrille and goode.
Kinge Charles hied him anoofi andcharies
1 Read : ' gray.' 2 See the note. advances.
ALAGOLAFRE AND BARROCK ARE SLAIN.
them with a
great oak club.
Richard seizes a
bar of brass
and knocks him
4 men get hold of
and throw him
into the river.
the chains ;
but, the Saracens
the wails of the
on with her
scythe and mows
down all whom
cut her brains,
Towarde the brigge so longe ; 2916
The Geaunte faught with hem alone,
He was so harde and stronge.
With a Clog 1 of an Oke he faught,
That was wele bound with stele. 2920
He slough al Jmt ever* he Taught,
So stronge was his dinte to dele.
Kichard raught him with a barr 1 of bras,
That he caught at the gate. 2924
He brake his legges, he cryed " alas "
And felle alle chefr-mate.
Loude than gan he to yelle ;
Thay herde him yelle through fat Cite, 2928
Like the grete develle of helle,
And saide " Mahounde, nowe helpe me ! "
iiij men him caught ther 5 ,
So hevy he was and longe, 2932
And cast him ouer in-to the river 1 .
Chese he, whither 1 he wolde swymme or gong 1 !
Anoon thay brast the Chaynes alle,
That ouer the brigge were I-drawe. 2936
The Saresyns ronnen to the walle,
Many Cristen men were ther* I-slawe.
Than came forth Dam barrok 1 , the bolde,
With a sithe large and kene, 2940
And mewe a-down as jnkke as shepe in folde,
That came byforne hir by-dene.
This Barrok 1 was a geaunesse,
And wife she was to Astragote, 2944
She did the Cristen grete distresse,
She felled downe alle J>at she smote.
There durst no man hire sithe abyde,
She grenned like a develle of helle. 2948
Kinge Charles with a quarel fat tide
Smote hir, that she lowde gan yelle,
1 . ? whether..'
CHARLES IS SHUT IN IN THE TOWN.
Euer 1 the founte through-oute the brayil;
That cursede fende fille down dede.
Many a man hade she there slayn,
Might she never aftyr etc more brede !
Charles entred in the firste warde
With xv knightis and no moo ;
Of hym his oste toke no garde,
He wende his oste hade entred also.
The Sarysyns ronne to the gate,
And shet it wonder faste.
Charles men come to late ;
Tho was Charles sore agaste.
Betwene two wardes he was shit,
Defende he him if he can !
The Sarysyns with him thay mette,
Grete parel was he in than.
Tho Genelyne saie, the kinge was inne
And the yates faste I-stoke,
Ther myght no man to him wynne,
So was he faste with-inne I-loke,
To his frendes he gan speke
And saide " the kinge is dede,
And alle xij peres eke.
On peyne " said he " to lese myn hede,
Let vs hye to Fraunce warde !
For I wele be crownede kinge,
I shalle you) alle wele rewarde,
For I wole spare for no thinge."
Anoon thay assented to Genelyne,
Thay saugh, ther was no better rede.
The Frenssh men drewe hem al ayene,
Thay wende the kinge hade bene dedde.
Tho Ferumbras with his meyne than
Came for to seke the kinge,
And saugh hem turne Query man ;
1 Head 'over.'
and with 15
knights enters the
2956 outer gate of the
But the gate was
upon him, and his
men came too
Charles was in
great danger ;
seeing him shut
2973 [leaf 74]
and the 12 peers
were dead, and
2976 as he wished to
be king himself.
They are going to
CHARLES IS RESCUED KY FERUMBRAS.
calls him a
and with his axe
bursts open the
He chased the
rescued the king.
with all its
2 children of 7
months old and
Him thought, it was a wondir thing 1 .
" Where is the kinge 1 " quod. Ferumbras.
Qwod Genelyne " with-in the walle, 2988
Shaltowe neuer 1 more seen his face ! "
" God gyf the an yvel falls !
Turns agayne, thou) traytoure !
And helpe to reskowe thy lorde. 2992
And ye, sires, alle for your 1 honour* ! "
Thay turned agayne with that worde.
Ferumbras with axe in honde,
Myghtyly brake up the gate, 2996
Ther myght laste him noon yron bonde,
He hade ner'-honde I-come to late.
The kinge hadde fought so longe witfr-ynne,
That onnethe myght he no more. 3000
Many ther were abouten him,
His men were wounded ful sore.
Ferumbras came with gode spede,
He made the Sarasyns to fle. 3004
He reskowed the kinge at his nede,
XL Sarasyns sone killed he.
Thai ronnen a-weye by every side,
Thai durste nowher' rowte. 3008
In shorte tyme was failed her pride,
Thay caught many a sore cloute.
That Cite was wonne that same daye,
And every tour 1 ther-ynne 3012
Of Mountreble, jjat was so gaye,
For alle her 1 soubtile gynne,
Fulle of tresour* and richesse,
Of Siluer and goolde and perr*, 3016
And clothes of goolde, wroght of Saresynes,
Of riche aray and roialte.
Eicharde, Duke of Normandy,
Founde ij Children of .vij. monies oolde, 1 3020
1 See the note.
HE HURRIES ON TO AGREMORE.
xiiij fote longe wer 1 thay,
Thay wer* Barrakes somies so boolde ;
Bygote thay wer> of Astragot.
Grete joye the kinge of hem hade.
Hethen thay wer* both, wele I wote,
Therfore hem to be cristenede he bade.
He called J>at one of hem Eoulande,
And that other he cleped Olyuer* :
" For thai shalle be myghty men of honde,"
To kepeii hem, he was fulle chere.
Thay myght not leve, her Dam was dede ;
Thai coude not kepe hem forth.
Thai wolde ney)?er ete butter nere brede,
NQI no men 1 was to hem worthe.
Her 5 Dawmes mylke they lakked ther 1 ,
Thay deyden for defaute of here dam.
Kinge Charles made hevy chei j ,
And a sory man was than.
The kinge lete ordeyne anoon,
The Cite to be gouerned?
Of the worthyest of hem ychon,
That weren of wen? best lerned*.
Duke Bicharde of Normandy,
He was made chief gouernour* ;
And ij C with him in hys company
To kepe the brigge and tour*.
Forth he rode to laban than,
With his Ooste and Sir 1 Ferumbras.
A spye to the Sowdon fast ran
And tolde him al that cas,
How Charles was come with his ost,
And Mountrible hade he wonne,
" Alagolofur slayfi is for alle his bost,
This game was evel begon."
Whane laban herde of his comynge,
1 Read: 'mete.'
4 feet high.
They were sons
to be baptized,
and called the
one Roland and
the other Oliver.
But they soon
for want of their
3044 governor of the
and hurries on to
3048 his army and
FLOUIPAS RECOGNISES THE FRENCH BANNER,
Laban, being told
by a spy that his
city was taken
and the bridge-
swears to avenge
He calls a council)
and charges his
barons to take
Charles alive that
he might flay
banner of France
and tells the
Him thought his herte gan breke. 3056
"Shalle I never be withoute inoornynge,
Tille I of him be wreke."
He cowmaunded to blowe his Claryons
To assemble alle his Ooste. 3060
His counsaile to him he lete calle
And tolde, how kinge Charles was in J>at coost,
Hadde wonne Mountrible and slayn his men
"And dishiryth to disheryte me, 3064
And proudely manessith me to fleen,
Or drive me oute of this contre.
Me mervaylythe moch of his pride.
By Mahounde, moost of myght ! 3068
Ye and my sone withe him doth ride,
To the develle I hem bedight.
But I be veDget of hem both
And honge hem on a tree, 3072
To myghty Mahounde I make myne othe,
Shalle I never Joyf ulle be.
Therfore I charge you) in alle wyse
That thay be taken or slayn. 3076
Thane shalle I pywne heme at my gyse
And don hem alle qwike be flayn. "
On the morowe, whan it was day,
Kinge Charles was in the felde, 3080
Byfore Agremour 5 in riche aray
On stede with sper 1 and sheelde.
Floripe lay on the tour* on hye
And knewe the baner 5 of Fraunce. 3084
To Roulande she gan faste crye
Tidynges of goode chaunce :
" Kinge Charles is comen and Ferumbras,
Here baners both I do see, 3088
"With alle her oste yonder* in J>at place ;
Welcome to vs thay alle be."
Roulande and Olyuere
CHARLES DISMOUNTS LAB AN AND LEADS HIM TO AGREMORE. 89
Arayed hem for to ride ; 3092 Roland and aii
' . his companions
And here ielawes alle in ier, saiiy forth to
lo Charles thay goii that tyde. magne.
Laban come forth with bis mayne, Laban draws up
all his people
Saresyns, that were ful felle, 3096
Turkes, Indens, and Arabye
Ye and of the Ethiopes like the develes of helle.
There were stronge wardes sctte [leaf 77]
By ordynaimce of dyuers batayle. 3100 in battle-order.
Whan thay to geder were met,
Eythir othir sore gan assayle.
Ther were Saresyns al to-he\ve ; The French make
a great slaughter
Koulande sloughe many one. 6104: of the Saracens.
Thay lay so thikke dede on rewe,
That onnej>e myghte men ride or goon.
Kinge Charles met with Laban Charles
And bare him down of his stede, 3108 soudan,
-FT t- i , i i , -i i ji unhorses him,
He lighted down and ceased him than,
He thought to qwite him his mede.
He brayde oute Mownjoye wyth gode wille
And wolde have smeten of his hede, 3112 and would have
cut off his head,
Ferumbras prayde him to abyde stille, butforFerumbras,
. . , who requested
lo crysten him, er he wer dede. that ins father
The Saresyns saughe Laban take, baptized.
Thay fiedden away fulle faste. 3116 seeing^S'
Lenger durste thay no maistryes make, J^ 8
Thai were so sore agaste.
The Cristen hem chased to and fro, but the Christians
As a grehounde doth the hare. 3120
.iii. c. ascaped with moche woo, soo escaped to
To Belmore gan thay far*.
Kinge Charles ladde Laban Charles leads
In-to Agremour* Cite. 3124 Agremore.
And whan ]>at he ther 1 came
A ful sory man was he.
His do^llter Welcomed hill! comes her father,
FLORIPAS BRINGS OUT THE SACRED RELICS.
but he is enraged
at seeing her.
She then bids
and presents the
holy relics to
and says a
he then thanks
Floripas for her
assistance to his
and for having
He orders Turpin
to prepare a
wherein to bap-
tize the Soudan
nnd to wash off
liis sin in the
With right gode cher*. 1 3128
He loked on hir al grymme,
As he wode wroth wer 5 ,
And saide " fye on the, stronge hore,
Mahounde confounde the ! " 3132
Charles saide " here-of no more,
But let us nowe mery be ! "
" Sir " she saide thanne,
" Welcome ye be into this tour 1 ! 3136
Here I presente to you, as I can,
Relikes of grete honour 1 ,
That were at Rome I-wonnen
And broght into this halle. 3140
That game was evel bygo?znen,
It si then rewed us alle."
Kinge Charles kneled adown
To Idsse the Relikes so goode, 3144
And badde thei j an oryson
To that lorde, J?at deyde on rode.
And Ranked Floripe with al his herte,
That she hade saued his meyne ! 3148
And holpe hem oute of peynes smerte
And kepte the Relekes so fre.
Kinge Charles did calle bisshope Turpyfi
And bade him ordeyne a grete fat, 3152
To baptyse the Sowdon yne ;
" And loke what he shalle hat.
Unarme him faste and bringe him ner 1 ,
I shal his godfader be. 3156
Fille it fulle of water 1 cler*,
For Baptysed shalle he be.
Make him naked as a Childe,
He moste plunge ther-inne. 3160
For now most he be meke and mylde,
And I-wassh awaye his synne."
1 These two lines are written as one in the MS.
LABAN IS SLAIN, AND FLORIPAS WEDDED TO GUY. 91
Turpyn toke him by the honde Turpin leads
Angl.ladde him to the fonte. 3164 font,
He smote the bisshope with a bronde buttheSoudan
strikes at him,
And gaf him an evel bronte.
He spitted in the water cler 1 8 P its the
And cryed oute on hem alle, 3168 utters invectives
And defied alle J?at cristen wer*. Christians,
That foule mote him by-falle 1.
" Ye and thou), hore serpentyne,
And that fals cursed Ferumbras, 3172 and curses
Mahounde gyfe hem both evel endyng 1 ,
And almyghty Sathanas !
By you came all my sorowe,
And al my tresure for-lorne. 3176
Honged be ye both er tomorowe !
In cursed tyme were ye born."
Ferumbras saide to the kinge,
" Sir, ye see, it wole not be, " 3180
Lete him take his endynge,
For he loueth not Cristyante."
"Duke Neymes" qwod Charles tho, Charles com-
. _ o -i o j mauds Nayraes
" Loke Jjat execucion be don, olo4r to cut off his
Smyte of his hedde ! god gyfe him woo ! Ja '[i ea f 79]
And goo we to mete anoone."
It was done as the kinge co?wmaunde, He is executed ;
his soul goes to
His soule was fet to helle, 3188 hen,
, , there to dance
To daunse in pat sory lande with devils.
With develes, pat wer* ful felle.
Dame Florip was Baptysed than rioripas was
baptized with all
And here maydyns alle, 3192 her maidens,
i j /^ -r and wedded to
And to Sir Gye I-maryed. Guy.
The Barons honoured hir alle.
Alle the londe of Spayne Charles divided
3uige Charles gyfe hem two, 3196 Guy and
vn i i -i i i Ferumbras,
lo departe bitwyxt hem twayne,
Ferumbras and Gy also.
CHARLES RETURNS TO FRANCE.
and charges Sir
Bretayne to take
care of the relics,
and to bring all
his treasure to
leave of Guy and
he sails to Moan-
where he thanks
God for the
And so thay livede in ioye and game,
And brethern both thay wei j , 3200
In pees and weri j both I-sarne,
Ther 1 durste no man hem der 1 .
Kinge Charles turned home agayn
Towarde his contre, 3204
He charged Sir Bryei of Bretayne
His tresourer 1 for to be :
To kepe the Eelikes of grete pris
And his other tresour 1 , 3208
And bringe hem safe to Parys,
There to a-bide in store.
He saide " farewell, Sir Ferumbras,
Ye and Gye, my dere frende ! 3212
And thy wyf Dame Floripas !
For to Fraunce nowe wole I wende.
Be ye togeder as breth[e]rn both !
No man ye neditn" to drede, 32 16
Be ye nevere to-gedere wroth,
But eyther helpe othir at his nede.
Yysityth me, whan ye haue space ;
In-to Fraunce makith" your disporte, 3220
God wole you sende the better grace,
In age to do me comforte."
Thai toke leve of the kinge,
With ful hevy cher 1 , 3224
And turned agayn both" mornynge,
With wepynge water cler>.
Kinge Charles with the victory
Sailed to Mourcpeleres, 3228
And thanked almyghty god in glorye,
That he hade saued his Dosiperes,
And fende him of the Saresynes
The hyer honde to have, 3232
For alle here strenghe l and her* Engynes
' Head : ' streng^he '
GENELYN IS HANGED AT PARIS. 93
The Eelikes of Rome to saue. and for the relics.
At OUie lady Of Parys He presents the
cross to Piiris
He offred the Crosse so fre ; 3236
The Crown he offred at seynte Denyse, the crown to -st.
At Boloyne the nayles thre. the three nails to
Alle his Barons of him wer 5 gladd,
Thai gafe him grete presente. 3240
For he so wele hade I-spedde,
Thay did him grete reuerence.
The kinge hade wel in mynde Charles wen
mi /> si -i ft n. A i remembered
Ihe tresone of Genelyne, 3244 the treachery of
Anooii for him he dide sende
To yefe him an evel fyne :
" Thou traitour unkynde " quod the kynge,
" Remembrist thou) not how ofte 3248
Thou hast me betrayed, J>ou fals Genelyne 1
Therfore thoue shalt be honged on lofte !
Loke that the execucion be don,
That throgh Parys he be drawe. 3252 and ordered him
to be drawn and
And honged on hye on mouwt Fawcon, hanged at
As longeth to traytoures by lawe ; Paris.
That alle men shall take hede,
What deth traytowrys shall fele, 3256
That assente to such falshede,
Howe the wynde here bodyes shal kele."
Thus Charles conquered Labafi, Tims Charles
The Sowdon of Babyloyne, 3260 3a n r of "*
That riche Rome stroyed and wan
And alle the brode londe.of Spayn.
1 [an]d of his Barons
[hi]s pride 3264
on Charles soule
. . . , . . .s also 3268
1 A corner of tlie leaf torn off.
Peter and Poule
[leaf si] God lete hem never wete of woo !
But "brynge here soules to goode reste !
That were so worthy in dede. 3272
God give joy to And gyf vs ioye of the beste,
all who read this
romance. That of here gestes rede !
Here endithe the Romaunce of the Sowdon
of Babyloyne and of Ferumbras his sone
who conquerede Rome, And Kynge Charles
off Fraunce withe xij. Dosyperes toke the
Sowdon in the feelde And smote of his
Page 1, line 1. myghteste, evidently an error of the scribe for myghtes,
cf. 11. 1635, 1312, 3068, 2546, 1200, 2059 ; and Syr Ferumbras, 1.
2719. "Nov help hem \>e he} kyng of hevene,
pat art of mi^tes most."
God in glorie occurs again in 1. 3229 } cf. the French expression
Damedeu de glore; Fierabras 2332.
p. 1, 1. 2. made and wroght in 1. 5 are the 2nd person sing, preterite,
which in all other instances in this poem ends in -est. But perhaps
we might suppose a change of person here, and regard made and
wroght as the third person. For examples of the change of person
see Syr Ferumbras, 11. 2719, 4393, and Guy of Warwick, ed. Zupitza,
p. 1, 1. 7. shulde to love ; to before an infinitive, governed by an
auxiliary verb, is pretty common in Middle English works. See
Zupitza's note to Guy, 1925.
p. 1, 1. 9. $yfe. This is the only instance of 3 being written in the present
poem at the beginning of a word, ^ife is written if in all other
passages of the poem, cf. 11. 550, 651, 763, and 1061, etc. As to the
pronunciation of 3 in the middle of a word, it is doubtful, whether it
had still preserved its ancient guttural sound, or not, as the same
words are written sometimes with it and sometimes without it, and
are often made to rhyme with words in which 3 or gh would be
etymologically incorrect ; e. g. nye, which is spelt ny$e in 1. 2284,
rhymes with Gye, in 1. 2657. We even find whtye, in 1. 2289, instead
of white (1. 2008 : smyte). At the end of a word 3 has the sound of s.
p. 1,1. 13. idoone. The prefix i-, O.E. ge-, sometimes occurs in this poern,
but more frequently it is not written ; see Introduction, p. xxxviii.
p. 1,1. 14. cf. 1. 2516. 11. 1 14 may be said to contain the moral of
the whole poem, which we know the romance writers to be very fond
of placing at the beginning of their works. " La moralite de tout un
poeme," says Leon Gautier, in his Epopees Franqaises, I. 233, " est
quelquefois exprimee dans ses premiers vers."
96 NOTES TO pp. 1, 2, 11. 16 29.
p. 1, 1. 16. mocTi = much (as in 1. 754) is the usual spelling in this
poem. We likewise find meche, 1. 179, and mikille, 1. 1016.
p. 1, 1. 19. his refers to Rome.
p. 1, 1. 22. Laban, the father of Ferumbras, is styled sowdan only in
this poem, and once in the Destruction de Rome, 1. 1436 :
" Les noveles en vindrent al soldan diffaie*."
The French, the Provengal and the English version of Sir Ferumbras
all agree to call him amyral or amirans.
p. 1, 1. 24. The mention of King Louis and of the abbey of St. Denis
(1. 27) seerns to be an imitation of the Destruction, 1. 7 et seq. :
" Le chanchon est perdue et le rime fausee,
Mais . . li rois Louis, dont 1'alme est trespassed
Ke li fache pardon la verge honoree
Par lui et par Gautier est 1'estoire aunee
Et le chanchon drescie, esprise et alumee
A saint Dynis de France premiereraent trovee."
St. Denis also occurs in the beginning of the French Fierabras, 1. 4 :
" A Saint Denis en France fu li raules trouveV
Cf. besides note to 1. 26. witnessith = attests, testifies ; cf. Stratmann,
p. 645. It occurs again in 1. 1489.
p. 2, 1. 25. Romaunce, the French or Romance language. We often
find the authors of romances, both of translations and of imitations
from the French, referring to the original ; cf. Syr Eglamour ofArtoys,
sign. E i : His own mother there he wedde,
In Komaunce as we rede."
Again, fol. ult. : " In Romaunce this cronycle is."
[Quoted by Warton. History of English Poetry, II. 146, footnote.]
p. 2, 1. 26. boJces of antiquyte. This is to be regarded as one of those
frequent assertions of the authors of these poems, who in order to
give more credit to their tales, thought it necessary to affirm their
antiquity and celebrity in old times. Cf. Gautier, Epop. .FV.,11. 87 :
" II fut de bon ton d'annoncer, au commencement de chaque poeme,
qu'on avail trouve la matiere de ce poeme dans quelque vieux
manuscrit latin, dans quelque vieille chronique d'abbaye, surtout
dans les manuscrits et dans les chroniques de Saint-Denis. On se
donnait par la un beau vernis de veracite historique. Plus les
trouverent ajoutaient aux chansons primitives d'affab illations ridicules,
plus ils s'ecriaient : ' Nous avons trouve tout cela dans un vieux
p. 2, 1. 27. Seinte Denyse is the genitive depending on abbey.
p. 2, 1. 28. there as = where, or where that. See Koch, Englische
Grammatik, II. 511.
p. 2, 1. 29. Laban. So the father of Ferumbras is called in the
Destruction de Rome, where only in six passages (11. 891, 899, 1116,
1194, 1174, 981) we find the form Balan, which is the only one used
in the French Fierabras, in the Proven9al version, and in the English
NOTES TO p. 2, 11. 31 49. 97
Syr Ferumbras. of hie degre ; this kind of expletive occurs again
in 1. 100 : clerk of hie degre ; cf. also 1. 168 : king of hie honour.
p. 2, 1. 31. Crlstiante = the company of Christians, the countries
inhabited by Christians, cf. 11. 235, 374. It signifies " the religion
taught by Christ "in 1.3182. Cristiante and Christendom are used
promiscuously in Middle English writers.
p. 2, 1. 33. Agremare : there. The rhyme becomes perfect by reading
Agremore : thore, which we find in 1. 1805 ; cf. also 1. 1003 Agremore :
more (i. e. negro), and 11. 672, 775, 2140, 2895.
p. 2, 1. 34. Flagot. See Index of Names, s. v. Flagot, and cf. note to
p. 2, 1. 37. This line is too long, nevertheless it seems to be correct as
it stands, clearly imitated from several passages of the Destruction de
1. 420. " Ensamble ou li issirent xv roi corone. Et xiiii amaceours . ."
1. 1155. "Bien i ad xxx rois et xiiii amaceours."
1. 689. "xxx roi sont ou li et xiiii amaceou.rs."
' 1.163. " Et xiiii amaceours."
p. 2, 1. 41. hit instead of it is found again in 1. 2309 ; in a^ll the other
instances it is spelt as in modern English.
p. 2, 1. 42. pryke, to spur a horse, to excite, to spur or to stimulate.
It is O.E. prician, which occurs in uElfric's Grammar, ed. Zupit/n,
p. 174 (pungo '= ic pricige). This and the following line are imitated
from Chaucer ; cf. C. T. Prologue, 11. 10, 11, and see Introduction, p. xlvi.
Kynde = naturalis, ingenuus ; Tcynde wit == common sense. Kynde
is O.E. cynde (Modern English kind).
p. 2, 1. 73. frith means "forest," or more correctly "enclosed wood.''
The original sense of forest is " unenclosed wood " (see Diez, Etymol.
Worterbuch, I. 185). Stratmann, Diet. p. 228, s. v. fri$, seems to
be right in connecting frith with O.E. fri$, freoZo = pax, tutela,
saeptum. Morris, Allit. Poems, Glossary, derives it from the Gaelic
frith, "frith is still used in Provincial English, meaning unused
pasture-land, brushwood " (Halliwell).
p. 2, 1. 45. yy (O.E. eagum) : flye (O.E. fleogan). With regard to
the power of 3, see the note to 1. 9, and cf. the spelling eyen in 11. 826,
p. 2, 1. 46. ire may be singular (O.E. treowe) as well as plural (O.E. *
p. 2, 1. 49. The following lines (4953) correspond with 11. 94100
of the Destruction, which run as follows :
" Li admirals d'Espaigne s'est ales desporter
As puis sur Aigremore, avec li. M. Escler ;
La fist ses ours salvages a ses hommes berser.
La veissies meint viautre, maint brachet descoupler,
Pay ens et Ascopars as espees jouer,
Coure par le marine et chacier maint sengler,
Maint ostour veisies et maint falcon voler."
CHA.RL. ROM. V. H
98 NOTES TO pp. 2, 3, 11. 50 68.
p. 2, 1. 50. shape, literally " shaped : " he shape him, " he got himself
ready, he planned, devised, intended." The phrase is of frequent
occurrence in Chaucer.
p. 2, 1. 52. bawson, badger. For the use of badgers, see Skeat's note
to Specimens of English Literature, p. 383.
p. 2, 1. 56. Alaunts, a kind of large dogs of great strength and
courage, used for hunting the wolf, the bear, the boar, &c. Cf.
" Aboute his chare wente white alauntz
Twenty and mo, as grete as any stere,
To huute at the lyoun or at the bere."
Chaucer, ed. Morris, II. 66/1290.
According to Diez (Etymol. Worterb., I. 12, s. v. u alano ") alaunts
means "Albanian dogs." Lymmeris, "blood-hounds." Halliwell
quotes the following passage : " A dogge engendred betwene an
hounde and a mastyve, called a lymrner or a mongrell." Lymmer is
the French limier, O.Fr. liemier, which etymologically means a dog
that a courser leads by a lime, i. e. a thong or leash. Lime is the
same word as French lien, a leash ; Latin ligamen. Lymmer is
preserved in Modern English limer, a u lime-hound."
p. 2, 1. 56. Rache and brache are both retained in the modern speech ;
rache seems to be particularly used in Scotland. " Brache is said to
signify originally a bitch hound the feminine of rache, a foot-
scenting dog" (Morris, Gawayne, Gloss, p. 89). Rache is, according
to Stratmann, O.Icel. rakki ; brache is O.Fr. braque, M.H.Ger.
braccho. Cf. also Halli well's Diet. s. v. " brach." The French racaille
is etymologically connected with rache ; see Diez, Etym. Worterb. ,
p. 2, 1. 57. commaunde for commaunded (1. 228), formed on the same
analogy as comforte (1. 2242) for comforted (11. 312, 2117), alty for
alighted gerde for girded ; graunte (1. 607) for graunted, etc.
p. 2, 1. 59. fere, O.E. fceran (Mod. En g. /ear), is an active verb, mean-
ing " to frighten, to terrify." It is still found in this sense in
Shakespeare. launde : commaunde. The very same rhyme occurs
again in 1. 3189, where launde is spelt lande. The rhyme need riot
cause any difficulty, cf. Guy, p. xi. K. Or must launde be taken here
for lande = saltus? Cf. Morris, Gloss, to Allit. Poems, s.v. launde.
p. 3, 1. 62. set, means "seat, sedes" ; O.Icel. set, O.H.G. sez, M.H.G.
sitz. This stanza as it stands seems to be incorrect, there being no
rhyme to sete ; possibly a line has been lost after 1. 63.
p. 3, 1. 67. The subject of the sentence is wanting. For more
instances see Zupitza's note to Guy, 1. 10. It is to be observed that
for the most part the subject wanting is of the same person as the
object of the preceding sentence. he was god and trew of divers
langages = " he well knew, Understood them perfectly."
p. 3, 1. 68. dromonde : poundis. Read dromounde (which occurs 1.
125) : pounde (see 1. 2336).
NOTES TO p. 3, 11. 69 93. 99
p. 3, 1. 69. We find fro and from in this poem. Both belong to the
Midland dialect. Fro is confirmed by the rhyme fro : so (1. 2760).
It is derived from the Scandinavian /ra; Mod. Eng. has retained it
in " fro ward," and in the phrase u to and fro." The same word
enters as a prefix into composition in O.E. compounds, as fr-ettan,
etc. Babyloyne, the author pronounced Babyloyne as well as
Babylone (either rhyming, cf. 11. 30, 3260).
p. 3, 1. 74. qweynte, " famous, excellent," cf. Skeat, Etymol. Diet. p.
482. s. v. quaint, for the nones, " for the nonce, for the occasion."
Cf. Zupitza's note to Guy, 612 ; it is often used as a kind of
p. 3, 1. 75. to presente you. The Destruction de Rome has : " vous qui-
p. 3, 1. 76. French : " Uns vens nous fist a Rome parmi le far sigler."
p. 3, 1. 77. Cf. Destr. 11. 115-16. See Introduction, p. xxiii.
p. 3, 1. 78. About the rhyme Rome: one, see Introduction, p. xliii.
p. 3, 1. 79. bygone, " afflicted, pressed hard ; " literally it means,
"overrun, covered." Cf. Shakespeare, Julius Caesar*
" Even such a one,
So pale, so spiritless, and woe-begone."
p. 3, 1. 82. vilane : remedye. Read vilanye, as in 1. 2577, where it rhymes
with Gye, see Introduction, p. xliv, and Ellis, Pronunciation, I. 271.
p. 3, 1. 83. colde, used here and in 1. 91 in nearly the same sense as
in the expressions collected by Zupitza, in his note to Guy, 1149.
p. 8, 1. 84. tithynge. So with th in 11. 1787, 714, 783; in 11. 65, 91,
149, 324, etc., we read tidinge. There are several instances where d
and th in the middle of a word seem to be promiscuously used in this
poem ; as hithire 1. 1265, hider 1869 (cf. also dogdir 2580, and doghter
96, 124, etc.).
p. 3, 1. 86. Mahounde, Appolyn and Termagant are the principal
deities (cf. 11. 2105, 2177, 2761) of the Mahometans, who were
considered as pagans = pay ens (11. 535, 1040) or paynym (11. 539, 866,
etc.). Other idols of the Saracens are mentioned in 11. 2761-2 of the
Sowdone. Compare also Gautier's note to 1. 8, of his Edition critique
de la Chanson de Roland, and Skeat, Prioress's Tale (Clarendon P.S.),
p. 3, 1. 88. theyme instead of hem occurs only three times in the poem
(11. 88, 1237, 2787). There must be some corruption here, as there is
no rhyme to theym. The last stanza ends at 1. 87, and the next one
begins at 1. 89. As far as the sense is concerned we could easily do
without this line ; it ought perhaps to be regarded as spurious.
p. 3, 1. 93. Ferumbras is spelt differently in the different versions of the
romance. In the Sowdan we always find Ferumbras, in the Ashmole
MS. Ferumbras arid Fyrumbras. He is called Fierabras in the French
100 NOTES TO p. 4, 11. 09124.
Ferabras in the Provenfal version ; the Destruction has Fierabras,
but more frequently Fierenbras. In Caxton's Life of Charles the
Great his name is Fyerabras, Skelton has Pherumbras, Lyndsay
Pharambras, and in Barbour's Bruce we read Feram brace ; see
Introduction, pp. xxv and xxxii.
p. 4, 1. 99. Oliborn. This name does not occur in any other version
of this poern. The same is the case with regard to Espiard, 1. 103.
None of the French versions gives any name to the Soudan's
messenger. In the Ashmole MS. 1. 3823, the messenger is called
p. 4, 1. 102. Assye = Asia. This name does not occur in the other
versions of the poem ; cf. note to 1. 1000.
p. 4, 1. 103. Cf. the Destruction, 1. 202 :
" Par tote la terre sont li baron niande "
ferre and nere, cf. 11. 117,996, and the note to 1. 528 of Syr Ferumbras.
p. 4, 1. 104. frike, " quick, bold," O.K. free. See Stratmann, Dictionary,
p. 4, 1. 108. \)on. Compare Introduction, p. xxxvii.
p. 4, 1. 109. The passage is not clear. Perhaps there is some corrup-
tion here and we ought to read : anon rowte, " assembled quickly,
immediately " ; rowte would then be the preterite formed on the
analogy of lighte, graunte, commaunde, etc. See Introduction, p. xxxviii.
p. 4, 1. 110. Destruction, 1. 217 :
" Par G fois M payen."
p. 4, 1. 112. donate : route. See Introduction, p. xliv, and note to 1. 9.
p. 4, 1. 113. Lucafer is the name of the Saracen King in all the
versions of this romance but in the French one, where with the
single exception of one passage (1. 2242 Lucafer), he is always called
Lucifer, cf. Introd. p. xx.
p. 4, 1. 114. lorde and governoure. This repetition of the same idea
by two synonymous words, the one of English and the other of
French origin, is very common in M.E. writers. Thus we read in
this poem, 1. 2164 lorde and sire, 1. 225 serchid and sought, 11. 3199,
1936 joye and game, 1. 742 wel and fine.
p. 4, 1. 118. A carrik was a kind of large ship, called caraca in Italian,
carraca in Spanish and Portuguese, carraque in French, kraecke in
Dutch. The etymology is not clear. See Diez, Etymol. Worterb., I.
112. Halliwell has * carrack, a Spanish galleon. Sometimes English
vessels of great value and size were so called.'
p. 4, 1. 119. Destruction, 1. 385 :
"Par vii fois sont C mil, si 1'estoire ne ment."
p. 4, 1. 124. his faire daughter Floripas. Floripas is described as
follows in the Destruction, 11. 252-262 :
" Aitant es vous la bele ou il n'out qu'enseignier
Vestue d'un diapre, onke ne vi tant chier,
NOTES TO pp. 4 6, 11. 128 173. 101
Ses crins sur ses epaules plus lusoienfc d'or mier,
Sa char out bele et blanke plus que noifs en fevricr,
Les oes avoit plus noirs que falcon montenier,
Et le colour vermaile con rose de rosier,
La bouche bien scant et douce pour baisier,
Et les levres vermailes come flour de peskier;
Les mameles out dures com pomme de pomnier,
Plus sont blanches que noifs que chiet apres fevrier ;
Nuls horn ne porroit ja sa grant bealte preisier."
Compare also the French Fierabras, 11. 2007, et seq.
p. 4, 1. 128. This line is clearly imitated from the Destruction, 11. 331-2 :
"En sa main .i. baston que contremont bailie,
Et manace Fran9ois pour faire les loye."
Cf. Introduction, p. xxiii.
p. 5, 1. 131. breddes, "birds" ; I and r very often change their place
in a word. Thus we find worlde and wrolde, crafti and carfti, etc.
p. 5, 1. 132. sowdon and sowdan are used promiscuously in the rhymes.
p. 5, 1. 146. Destruction, 11. 445-6 :
" N'i remeigne chastels, dongeons ne fermete
Moustiers ne abbeie que ne soit embrase."
p. 5, 1. 150. Compare the Destruction, 11. 5034 :
" L'apostoile de Rome ad la novele oie
Ke payen sont veiiu els plains de Romanic."
p. 5, 1. 157. unknowne makes no sense. Perhaps we ought to read
ylmowne or not unknowne. In the Destruction, 11. 509-513
" Seignours, ke le feromes, franke gent segnorie?
Li admirals d'Espaigne a no terre seisie ;
II en ont ja gastee une moult grant partie :
Au bref terme serra ceste terre exillie ;
Qui bon consail saura vienge avant si nous die."
p. 5, 1. 160. unneth, O.E. unease, " uneasily, scarcely." Chaucer lias
unnethe, the final e being almost always sounded. See Introduction,
p. 5, 1. 163. gydoure evidently means " guide, conductor, commander,"
p. 5, 1. 164. houne hounde. On the elition of final d, see Skeat,
Specimens of Early English, 320/261, and Preface to Havelolc, p.
p. 5, 1. 165. Ifre^. There is no person of this name in any other
version. Perhaps this Ifres may be identical with Jeffroi, mentioned
as a senator of Rome in the Destruction (11. 1122, 1139, 1367).
p. 6, 1. 170. About the phrase "douce France" compare Leon Gautier's
note to 1. 15 of his Edition critique de la Chanson de Roland.
p. 6, 1. 171. Savaris. The author has found this name in the Destruc-
tion, 1. 540.
p. 6, 1. 173. Kinge: thinge. In my dissertation on the language and
the sources of the Sowdan of Babylon, p. 4, bottom, I have shown
102 NOTES TO pp. 6 8, 11. 175 247.
that i or y, which corresponds to O.E. y, the umlaut of u, rhymed
with original i in this poem, which proves that the author wrote in
the East Midland dialect. But among- the examples collected there
(p. 5), I ought not to have cited Icing e, because this word is not
peculiar to the East Midland speech, but occurs with the same form
in all dialects. See Introduction, p. xxxv.
p. 6, 11. 175-6 are imitated from the Destruction, 11. 546-7. See Intro-
duction, p. xxiii.
p. 6, 1. 176. ner, the common form for nor (267, 1633) in this poem.
11 Polaynes are knee-pieces in a suit of armour. This term for geriouil-
leres is found in the household book of Edward I." (Morris, Glossary
on Sir Gawayne, s. v. polaynes).
p. 6, 1. 181. tyte, "soon, quick." The editor of the Roxburghe Club
edition of the Soivdan curiously confounds tyte with tightly =
" adroitly," occurring in Shakespeare, Merry Wives, I. 3. Tyte is
derived from O.Icel. tfer, " creber," the neuter of which titt, used
adverbially means " crebro, celeriter." See Stratmann, p. 561,
s. v. tid.
p. 6, 1. 189. Chek = ll cotton, linen or woollen clothe, woven or printed
in checkers." (Latham, Dictionary, 1876.)
p. 6, 1. 191. A line seems to be wanting here. There is no rhyme to
p. 6, 1. 201. randon, " rapidity, force." About the etymology sue
Diez, Etym. Worterbuch, I. 342, and Skeat, Etym. Diet.
p. 7, 1. 202. than seems to be an error for thay.
p. 7, 1. 214. Sarysyns. There are several spellings of the name of
this people in the poem : Sarsyns, Sarsenys, Sarisyns, Sarasyns.
p. 7, 1. 222. that day occurs again in 1. 223. The author probably
only wrote it once; the repetition is most likely due to the scribe.
p. 7, 1. 224. The following lines are imitated from the Destruction,
11. 613-619 ; see Introduction, p. xxiii.
p. 7, 1. 228. The French text (Destruction, 1. 624) has :
" Maintenant soient tot occis et descoupe.
Ne voil que mi serjant en soient encombre."
p. 8, 1. 247. The original meaning of brayde is " start, blow," but
this makes no sense here, nor can it mean " a boast," as the editor of
the Roxburghe Club edition explains it. But Mid. Eng. brayde, as
well as O.E. brcegd or bregd, often signifies " deceit, craft, a cunning
trick, a fraud ulous contrivance, a stratagem or artifice." See Matzner's
Worterb. arid Halliwell's Diet. This, I think, is also the meaning of
brayde in 1. 247. Floripas has been engaged to Lukafer who had
promised the Soudan, her father, to bring the emperor Charlemagne
and all his twelve peers to the foot of his throne, in return for the hand
of his daughter. Floripas, not at all enamoured of the king of Baldas,
but obeying the will of her father, said she would only agree to
NOTES TO pp. 8 10, 11. 257 312. 103
accept him when he had fulfilled these conditions. But she does not
believe that Laban thinks of ever fulfilling them, she is persuaded
that those words, those promises made by Laban, are only a bro.yde,
i. e. a stratagem or artifice devised by him in the hope of winning
her hand before the performance of his promise. This signification
of braide has been retained in the Mod. Eng. adjective braid, " crafty,
p. 8, 1. 257. The Ethiopes, " Ethiopians," are not mentioned in the
other versions of this romance. On the rhyme Aufricanes : stones
cf. Introduction, p. xxxv.
p. 9, 1. 278. Destruction, 1. 908 :
" Sortibrans a mande Mabon 1'engineor."
p. 9, 1. 283. depe : tyde. The rhyme becomes perfect if we read wide
instead of depe.
p. 9, 1. 286. French text gives, 1. 934 :
" Si emplirons les fosse's."
p. 9, 1. 289. Cf . Destruction, 1. 627. " Mahon te benoie," and 1. 925,
"Mahori te doint honour."
p. 9, 1. 293. Men myght go even to the walle, compare the Destruction,
" K'om poet aler al mure."
and 1. 958 :
" K'om pooit bien au mur et venir et aler."
p. 9, 1. 295. assaile, evidently a mistake. Read assaute, as in 1. 2205.
p. 9, 1. 298. shour, " fight, attack." See Zupitza's note to Guy, 1. 9206.
sharpe shoures, as in the Destruction of Troy, 1. 5804, " sharp was the
shoure." Cf. also 1. 950 of this poem, "bataile was sharpe."
p. 9, 1. 300. stones thai bare, etc. Destruction, 1. 967 :
" Ces dedens ou grans pieres firent grant lapide."
p. 9, 1. 303. French text gives (1. 975) :
" Maintes pieres del mur ont contreval rue."
p. 9, 1. 306. In the Destruction, 1. 977 :
" L'asalt dureit eel jour jusque a la nutee."
p. 9, 1. 307. French : " Payen se sont retrait." Destruction, 1. 979.
p. 10, 1. 311. For tyde : chidde see Introduction, p. xliii.
p. 10, 1. 312.
" Lucafer li traitre traison ad pense,
Qu'il se contrefera les armes del cite ;
Et tote si pense sont a Labam demonstre.
' Sire admirail d'Espaigne,' ceo dist li diffaies,
' La cite est moult fors, et Fran9ois sont doute ;
Us defendront le mur, ja mais n'iert entre,
Que par une voidie que jeo ai porpense.
II ad dedens un conte de mult grant crualte,
Savaris ad a non, est de grant parente ;
Chescon jour il s'en ist, s'est one nous melle.
De la gent dieifae, mainte teste a coupe." Destr., IL 986-96.
104 NOTES TO pp. 10 12, 11. 317 380.
p. 10, 1. 317. Destruction, 1. 997.
" J'ai bien conu ses armes et les ai avise."
p. 10, 1. 331. Destruction, 1. 1011 :
" Tantost le mestre porte aurons moult bien ferme. M
p. 10, 1. 332. Destruction, 1. 1057 :
" Mais tot le premier bail ont Sarrasin poeple."
p. 10, 1. 336. discumfiture, " defeat." See below, note to 1. 1320.
p. 10, 1. 339. ryme, " to speak loudly, to cry." O.E. hreman or hrflman.
See Stratmann, p. 322.
p. 10, 1. 340. French text (1. 1063) :
" De V. M. ne remendrent que iiiC sans fausser."
See note to 1. 67.
p. 10, 1. 341. twelfe : selve ; f and v very often stand for one another,
see Introduction on p. xliii.
p. 10, 1. 344. shite : mette. See Ellis, Pronunc., I. 272, and Introduc-
tion, on p. xliv. Cf. also 11. 2054, 2963, 2960. by than = then ; see
Matzner's Worterb. p. 217(2).
p, 11, 1. 346. Estragot or Astragot. This name is not to be found in
the other versions, it only occurs in the Sowdan and in the Destruc-
tion ; cf. Destr. 1. 1090-4 :
" Estragot le poursuit uns geans diffaies
Teste avoit com senglers, si fu rois corones.
El main tient .i. mace de fin ascier trempe,
Un coup a Savaris desur le chef done."
p. 11, 1. 360. French text reads :
" Et la novele en ont 1'apostoile conte." Destr. 1. 1101.
p. 11, 1. 363. consaile : slayne. See Introduction, p. xliii.
p. 11, 1. 364. See above, 1. 78.
p. 11,1. 368. erille is not derived from the Erse, as the editor of the
Roxburghe Club edition supposes. It is simply another spelling for
erle, which occurs in 1. 1986. O.E. eorl, Mod. Eng. earl.
p. 11, 1. 369. There must be a gap of some lines here ; between this
'and the following line a space has been left of about the "width of one
line ; 1. 370 is written in a much later hand,
p. 11, 1. 376. lettres translates the French " li brief" (Destr. 1. 1121),
in haste = French " isnelement " (Destr. 1. 1119).
p. 11, 1. 377. we ordeyne makes no sense. Read were ordeyned, as in
1. 2396. Cf. the Destruction, 1. 1133 :
" Tot troi sont coiement de la cite haste's."
p. 12, 1. 379. at a posterne. On the posterns compare Skeat, Spec, of
Eng. Literature, 359, 165.
p. 12, 1. 380. aboute mydnyghte. French : " Tote la nuit alerent ou
la lune clarte." Destr. 1. 1136.
NOTES TO pp. 12 15, 11. 394510. 105
p. 12, 1. 394. honde of honde, " hand to hand." In the Glossary of the
Roxburghe Club ed. we read : " Cast. Wherewithal to throw." This
is the sense of cast in 1. 2471 but it occurs witli two other meanings.
In 1. 394 cast signifies " device, plot, intention," as often elsewhere.
In 11. 4GO, 2091, 2099, 2467, 2603, 2792, it means " the act of throw-
ing, the throw."
p. 12, 1. 400. hevy, "afflicted, sorrowful." So in 11. 3037, 3224.
p. 13, 1. 427. Estagote, miswritten for Estragote, cf. 11. 346, 352, and
Destr. 1. 1090. brake on three, cf. 11. 2234, 1388, 1269.
p. 13, 1. 441. Sarsyns : Romaynes. See Introduction, p. xliv.
p. 14, 1. 464. oost does not rhyme with beste. Both the sense and the
rhyme will be improved if we read rest for oost.
p. 14, 1. 473. As it stands, the line makes no sense. This is written
indistinctly in the MS., so that we may read either this or thus;
the sense requires the latter, which I think is the true reading. Or
else we may keep this and write idone instead of it done.
p. 15, 1. 488. aras. Read a ras, and see note to I. 1349.
p. 15, 1. 491. and armes makes no sense, as we are hardly entitled to
take armes for the 2nd person plural imperative ; which in this
poem always ends in -eth. See Introduction, p. xxxvii. I think we
must change and into as. For the explanation of the phrase " as
armes," see note on 1. 2660.
p 15, 1. 495. The Ascopars or Ascopartes are mentioned in the
Destruction as the subjects of the Soudan. The name of this people
is not to be found in any other version. Asiopars is merely a clerical
error for Ascopars, which may be easily accounted for by remembering
that in the MSS. the characters c and t are very often formed almost
alike. The true spelling Ascopars is found in 11. 2196, 2648 ; cf. also
the Destruction, 11. 98, 426. Nothing is known of the origin and the
home of the Ascoparts. That they must have been men of great bodily
strength follows from 1. 496, " for ye be men of mighte," and 1.
2645, " that bene boolde and hardy to fighte." Compare also what
is said about them by Donne, in his first satire :
" Those Askaparts, men big enough to throw
Charing-cross for a bar."
It is worthy while to note that a giant, called Askapard, occurs in
the romance of Sir Bevis of Hamptoun. See Ellis, Metr. Romances,
. ed. Halliwell, p. 263.
p. 15, 1, 500. Ho is evidently a mistake for we. rere-warde, " rear-
guard ; " the van is called fowarde, 11. 502, 732, the main body the
medyl partye, 1. 735.
p. 15, 1. 504. than : gon. See Introduction, p. xxxv.
p. 15, 1. 510. oon makes no sense. I suspect the reading of this and
the following stanza is quite corrupt. If 11. 510 and 511 should
belong to different stanzas, the enjambement, or continuation of the
106 NOTES TO pp. 15, 16, 11. 514 532.
sense from one stanza to another, would be unusually strong. I am
therefore inclined to think that originally a stanza began at 1. 510,
and that there is a line wanting after 1. 509. which contained the
rhyme to bon (1. 508). The scribe noticing the absence of rhyme
tried to restore it himself. Adding oon to 1. 510, he made it rhyme
with bon (1. 508). Having thus destroyed the rhyme of 11. 510 and
512 (Alisaundre : Cassaundre, as in 1. 984), he added gaye to 1. 512,
which now rhymed to 1. 514, where he still added tofraye. In order
to get a rhyme to 1. 518, he changed in 1. 516 the original laye
(: Romayne) into Ian ("he ceased, stopped"), and wrote "to" the
grounde instead of "on" (cf. 1. 1186) or "a" (cf. 11. 533,435) the
grounde, connecting thus these words with 1. 515, whereas originally
they belonged to there he laye, or as there also may have been
added by the scribe to he laye. If now we read with mayne instead
tfful evene, in 1. 521, we get a perfect rhyme to 1. 519 ; 1. 520 having
lost its rhyming line, he made it rhyme, by adding than to 1. 522,
which originally rhymed to 1. 524. Now to get a rhyme to 1. 524 he
composed and inserted himself 1. 526. Therefore I think the original
reading of these two stanzas ran as follows :
510 Sir Ferumbras of Alisaundre
That bolde man was in dede,
Uppon a steede Cassaundre
He roode in riche weede.
514 Sir Bryer of Poyle a Romayne
He bare through with a ppere ;
Dede on the ground [there] he laye,
Might he no more hem dere.
618 That saw Huberte, a worthy man,
Howe Briere was islayne,
Ferumbras to quite than
To him he rode with mayne.
522 With a spere uppone his shelde
Stiffly gan he strike ;
The shelde lie brake imiddis the feelde,
His hawberke wolde not breke. .
526 Ferumbras was agreved tho, &c.
On the rhyme Romaijm ; laye (1. 514) cf. 11. 536, 890.
p. 15, 1. 514. Bryer of Poyle does not occur in any of the other
p. 15, 1. 516. Ian, preterite of Zm, " to cease ; " more common in the
compound llin, contracted from * be-lin.
p. 15, 1. 517. might he no more hem dere. On the order of words, cf. 11.
2954, 649, 2435.
p. 16, 1. 520. qwite, " to requite, reward, retaliate, pay off." See below
note to 1. 780.
p. 16, 1.531. On stronge (O.E. strang) : istonge (O.E. gestungen), see
Introduction, p. xxxv.
p. 16, 1. 532. astraye, " out of the right way or proper place, running
NOTES TO pp. 16 19, 11. 541 650. 107
about without guidance." 0. French estraier, which is derived from
Latin ex strada, see Diez, Etym. Worterb. I. 402 ; II. 29G.
p. 16, 1. 541. werre, " war," seems to owe its origin to the French
guerre, as it is not found in O.E. It appears for the first time in the
Saxon Chronicle, he coude, " he knew, had endured." See Matzner's
Grammatik, II. 262.
p. 17, 1. 555. It is evident that all ane must be a corruption. Perhaps
the conjecture of the editorof the lioxb. Club edition, supposing all rafe
to be the true reading, may be right. But he is certainly wrong to
identify this rafe with the rafe in 1. 866, which, being the infinitive
mood of a verb, cannot be taken for an adjective or adverb, which
the sense seems to require in 1. 555. Hallivvell, s. v. Raff, gives :
" in raff = speedily." There is a Danish adjective, rap, "brisk,
quick." Cf. Skeat, Etym. Diet. s. v. raffle and rap.
p. 17, 1. 570. certaine spoils the rhyme. The rhyme becomes perfect
if we read without faile, as in 1. 322.
p. 17, 1. 573. aplicjht, "on plight, on my word." See Zupitza's note
to Guy, 1. 8541. It is often used as an expletive.
p. 17, 1. 580. who the sowclan, etc. = who is the Sovvdan. The verb of
the sentence is wanting; cf. note to 1. 2156.
p. 17, 1. 587. French text gives :
" Et Guion de Bourgoyne ad a lui appe!6
Fils est de sa soror et de sa parente
Cosins, vous en irres. . ."
Destr. 11. 1179, et scq.
p. 18, 1. 613. hight=(l) was called," (2) " promised," (3) " called "
(partic. past). It is the preterite tense of haten, hoten, or hat (1. 3154).
Cf. Zupitza's note to Guy, 1. 169.
p. 18, 1. 614. than seems to be a corruption, and I think must be left
out. Florip is the genitive of Florip, which occurs as a nominative
in 11. 2075, 1527. There is another nominative Floripas which forms
the genitive Floripas, 11. 1659, 2350.
p. 19, 1. 625. Isres, the name of the " chief porter of the town," who
betrayed the city, only occurs in the Sowdan ; in the Destruction the
same treachery is committed by Tabour, D. 1203.
"Tins traitre del cit que del porte out les cles."
p. 19, 1. 636. bandon, literally (i proclamation," means "power, dis-
posal." See Skeat, Etym. Diet. s. v. abandon.
p. 19, 1. 647. French :
" Le chief al portier trenche," Destr. 1. 1236.
p. 19, 1. 648. In the Destr. 1. 1244-5 :
" Dieux " fist il " te maldie, et que font engendre,
Kar traitour au darain averont mal dehe."
p. 19, 1. 650. met, a mistake for mot, which we find in 11. 1582, 2334,
108 NOTES TO pp. 20 22, 11. 663 744.
p. 20, 1. 663. Cf. the Destr. 1. 1260 :
" Al moustier de saint Piere est Fierenbras ales."
p. 20, 1. 665. the crosse, the crown, the nailes bente. The relics
mentioned in the Destruction are the crown of thorns, the cross, the
nails, and the " signe," which, as I have shown in my Dissertation
(pp. 45, 46), does not mean " inscription of the cross," but is the
Greek frti'uv, arid signifies "the shroud, or winding-sheet, of the
Lord, suaire, sudatorium." In the French Fierabras, as well as in
Syr Ferumbras, no mention is made of the cross.
p. 20, 1. 673. thare instead of there would improve the rhyme. See
Introduction, p. xxxv.
p. 20, 1. 678. fade, O.E. fadian, " dispose, suit." Stratmann, p. 187.
p. 20, 1. 679. frankencense = " pure incense." Compare Skeat, Etym.
p. 20, 1. 686. roial, " excellent." Cf. " roial spicerye," Chaucer, ed.
Morris, III. 135/142.
p. 21, 1. 699. Alle on aflame that cite was; cf. the French :
"Kant il vindrent a Rome si virent luy porte oueree
La flambe en la cite moult granment alumee.
Pour grant chalour qu'i fu n'i povoient entrer."
(Destr. 11. 1378-80.)
p. 21, 1. 723. The Destruction, 11. 13841408, has :
" Si dirrai de Oharlon, le fort roi corone.
De par totes ses terres avoit ses gens mande,
N'i remest dus ne quiens ne baron el regne,
Qu'il assemble ne soient a Paris la cite.
Quant il i furent tous venu et ajouste,'
L'emperere de France en halt en ad parle :
' Seignours, or escoutes, si vous dirrai verte,
Li admirails d'Espaigne a no pais gaste
Et oue lui CM sarrazin diffaie.
II ont ensegie Rome, m'admirable cite,
Tot le pais entour ont il pour voir robbe ;
Si jeo ne les soccour tot 1'auront il gaste.'
' Sire,' firent li princes, ' a vostre volonte :
Nous ne vous failliromes tant que poons durer.'
Adonc en ad li rois grant joie demene.
Quant si gent furent prest a complir son pense,
Adonc s'en est li rois eralment aprestes
Et si firent li contes de France le regne.
Quant sont appareillie si sont enchemine :
iii C mil chevaliers ad li rois el barne
Oliviers porte sa baneer que ben leu ad guie,
Rollans fu en arriere, li vassals adures.
De soccoure Guion s'en est li rois hastes.
Tant ont il nuit et jor chivalche et erre.
Qu'il sont en Romenie, n'i ont reine tire."
p. 22, 1. 744. He knewe the baner of France. The French text has :
NOTES TO pp. 23 25, 11. 766 836. 109
" Guis parceut le baniere le roi de saint Dine,
Encontre lui chevalche, la novele ont conte,
Come la forte cite li payen ont gaste :
La corone et les clous d'iloec en sont robbe
Et les altres reliques. . ."
p. 23, 1. 766. for, " notwithstanding, in spite of." So also in 1.
p. 23, 1. 771. Destr., 1. 1425:'
' Li vens en fiert es voiles que les a ben guies."
p. 23, 1. 776. for south, " forsooth," cf. 11. 2014, 897, 2024, 1025, 2246.
p. 23, 1. 778. Frencli : " il sont en terre entre."
p. 23, 1. 779. fonde: grounde. fonde is spelt founde in 11. 1857, 3020,
344, 2353, 2363.
p. 23, 1. 780. stroyeth = "destroy eth." "Compounds of Romance
origin, the first part of which is a preposition, or words derived from
such, often mutilate, or even entirely drop the preposition " (Zupitza's
note to Guy, 1. 576). Thus we have sail, 1. 385, " assail ;"
longeth, 1. 3254, = " belongeth ;" slcomfited, 1. 1320, = " diskomfited,"
11. 336, 1464 ; quite, 1. 520, = " requite ; " perceived, 1. 2659, = " aper-
ceived;" saut, 11. 619, 2200, = " assaut," 1. 615; ginne, 1. 2326, =
" enginne," 1. 333 ; playne, 1. 177, = " complayn ; " shaped, 1. 2049, =
"askaped," 1. 2218.
p. 23, I. 787. Frencli : " iiiC mile Francois."
p. 24, 1. 812. ychoon : Mahounde. See Introduction, p. xlii.
p. 24, 1. 820. strolce : stoupe. See Introduction, p. xliii.
p. 24, 1. 820. stenyed, u stunned," not from O.Fr. estaindre, as the
editor of the Roxb. Club ed. suggests, but from O.E. stunian, " per-
cellere, stupefacere." See Stratmann, p. 540.
p. 24, 1. 835. Observe the subject expressed twice ; cf. 11. 723, 1031,
1682, 1814, 2331.
p. 25, 1. 836. Neymes. This celebrated hero has been especially famous
by the advices and counsels of which even in matters of greatest
difficulty he was never at a loss. "Tel conseiller n'orent onques li
Franc," i. e. the French had never such a counsellor. This passage
of the romance of Aspremont may be looked upon as containing the
portrait of Neymes as we find him described in all poems. The story
of his birth and youth is in the romance of Aubri le Bourgoing. He
was the son of Gasselin, king of Bavaria. Cassile, an usurper, is
about to seize the throne and to kill the young Neymes, when
Charlemagne comes to his help and re-establishes the legitimate
p. 25, 1. 836. Ogier Danoys (cf. 1. 1687) is one of the twelve peers in
this poem. His life is contained in the French poem of the
" Chevallerie Ogier" by Raimbert de Paris. According to that
romance Ogier had been delivered in his youth to Charlemagne as
110 NOTES TO pp. 25, 26, 11. 845 875.
a pledge to secure the discharge of the tribute which his father
Geffroi, king of Denmark, was bound to pay to the emperor. The
French ambassadors having once been insulted by Geffroy, Charle-
magne swears to make Ogier pay with his life the offence done by
his father, and Ogier is going to be executed when the emperor,
following the urgent requests of messengers arrived from Rome,
suddenly starts to deliver this city from the Saracens. On this
expedition the French army is hard pressed by the enemy, but Ogier
by his eminent prowess and valour enables Charles to enter Rome.
He now is pardoned and becomes the favourite of the emperor.
Several years afterwards Ogier's son Baudouinet is slain by Chariot,
the son of Charlemagne, as they were quarrelling about a party of
chess. Ogier, in order to revenge his son, goes as far as to attack
Charlemagne himself, but on the point of being taken a prisoner, he
escapes and flees to Didier, king of Lornbardy. Charles makes war
on Didier, and after a long struggle Ogier is taken and imprisoned at
Reims, where he is going to be starved, when a sudden invasion of the
Saracens obliges Charlemagne again to have recourse to the courage
and valour of the Dane. Ogier delivers France by slaying the giant
Brehus. To reward him for the service done to his country, Charles
gives him the county of Hainaut, where afterwards, as the poem tells
us, he died in the renown of holiness.
p. 25, 1. 845. it = " hit." Cf. note to 1. 41.
p. 25, 1. 847-50. These four lines seem to be incorrect. As they stand,
the three first lines are rhymed together, and there is no rhyme to
the fourth. The diction of the whole passage, which cannot be said
to be an grammatical, is nevertheless wanting in precision and
p. 25, 1. 866. rafe = rave.
p. 25, 1. 868. Moun-joye is the name of Charlemagne's sword in this
poem (cf. 11. 3111,850), whereas, according to all other romances, the
emperor's sword was called Joyeuse. Mounjoie or Montjoie was the
name of the French standard* it was likewise used as the battle-cry
of the French, cf. Fierabras, 1. 1703, and Syr Ferumbras, 11. 2285,
2652, 4577, 4727. The sword Joyeuse had been forged by the
celebrated Weland or Galand, as we read in the French Fierabras,
1. 635 : Et Galans fist Floberge & 1'acier atrempe,
Hauteclere et Joiouse, ou moult ot dignite ;
Cele tint Karlemaines kmguement en certe."
Compare Gaston Paris, Histoire Poetique, p. 374.
p. 26, 1. 875. Durnedale. This renowned sword was forged by the
famous Galand or Weland. The French Fierabras (1. 645) is the
only romance which attributes it to Munifican. It had been given
by Charlemagne to Roland as the best of his warriors. As to the
exploits achieved with it. Roland enumerates them himself in that
celebrated passage, where in his death-hour he tries to break
NOTES TO pp. 26, 27, 11. 876 939. Ill
Durnedale to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Saracens
(Chanson de Roland, 11. 2316-2337). The steel blade of this sword
has been highly praised for its extraordinary hardness. It had been
tried by Charlemagne himself on that " perron," or steel block before
the emperor's palace in Aix-la-Chapelle (see Histoire Pcetique, p.
370). Durnedale proved good as well as Almace, the sword of
Turpin. But Courtain, Ogier's sword, was then shortened by half a
foot. According to 1. 1407 of the Sowdan, Durnedale broke ; but
this incident has been mentioned nowhere else. Of. Syr Ferumbras,
1. 997, and lierabras, 1. 1740.
p. 26, 1. 876. romme, spelt also rome, rowme, roum, is Mod. E. room,
O.E. rum, " spatium."
p. 26, 1. 880. dinge ; read gan dlnge. Dinge is the infinitive mood,
but the sense requires a preterite tense. The preterite of dinge is
dong, dongen, which occurs in 1. 1263. But as dinge cannot be
altered here, on account of the rhyme, the passage is easily corrected
by adding gan = " he began to strike, he struck."
p. 26, 1. 884. Allnreynes of Loreynes and Aleroyse (1. 1699) are probably
identical. Then Alloreynes would be an error of the scribe, who
having already the following Loreynes in his mind wrote Alloreynes
instead of A lleroyse.
p. 26, 1. 900. in fay = " truly," fay == " faith, truth." O.Fr. fei or
feid) Lat. fides.
p. 26, 1. 904-5. Cf. Chanson de Roland, 11. 1903-4 :
" Rollanz est proz e Oliviers est sages,
Ambedui unt merveillus vasselage."
p. 27, 1. 913. I cannot tell what treyumpU means, or whether it be a
p. 27, 1. 939. This kind of prayer or apostrophe addressed to the God
of War is certainly taken from another English work, which I am
unable to trace, but which must have been much known at the time
of our author, as we find it referred to in different authors. That it
has been taken from another poem is proved by some phrases of this
prayer which are somewhat obscure or rather unintelligible here, and
which we certainly should be able to explain if we knew the original
context in which they occurred. Then the form hase (1. 940) is
somewhat suspicious, as it is the only instance of the 2nd person
singular present dropping the t, which it has always in this poem.
The arrangement, too, of the following stanzas differs from that
generally observed in the Sowdan. If we consider our poem as
composed in eight-line stanzas (but see Introduction, p. xl) we
mostly find the 1st and 3rd lines rhyming together, then the 2nd and
4th, the 5th and 7th, and finally the 6th and 8th, so that four
different rhyme-endings are necessary to one stanza. If now we
consider the stanza from 1. 939 to 946, we only, have two rhyme-
endings, all the pair lines rhyming together, and all the odd ones
112 NOTES TO pp. 27, 28, 11. 939 966.
together. In 11. 947 to 950 the 1st and 4th rhyme together, whilst
the 2nd and 3rd are paired off together. 11. 939-941 we find alluded
to in Chaucer, see Introduction, p. xlvi, and the Prioress's Tale, ed.
Skeat (Clarendon Press), p. xvii. Compare also Lindsay, The Historic
of Squyer Meldrum, 1. 390 :
" Like Mars, the God Armipotent."
p. 27, 1. 939. rede Mars. " Bocaccio uses the same epithet in the
opening of his Teseide : ' rubiconde Marte.' Rede refers to the
colour of the planet." Morris, note to Knight's Tale, 1. 889.
p. 27, 1. 940. Baye never means "sword," as the editor of the
Roxburghe Club ed. renders it, nor does this translation make any
sense here at all ; baye signifies " a wide, open room or space in
a building." See Matzner's Worterbuch, p. 164. Morris, in the
Glossary to the Alliterative Poems, has " bay = recess. The original
meaning seems to be opening of any kind. Cf. bay, space in a
building between two main beams." Halliwell, s. v. bay, has : '' A
principal compartment or division in the architectural arrangement
of a building." It appears to be etymologically the same word as
Ital. baja, French baie, " bay, gulf, harbour," the French bale being
equally used for " opening of any kind." The Catalan form for baie
is badia, which corresponds to the verb badar, meaning " to open."
See Diez, Etym. Wdrterb. I. 46. Bay is retained in the Mod. E.
compound " bay-window." Cf. also the Frencli " la ftee dune fenestre"
cited by Carpentier-Ducange, s. v. beare. With regard to the
signification of trende, the editor of the Roxb. Club ed. wrongly
guessed again in explaining it as " drawn " or " trenchant, cutting."
Trende means " turned, bent, vaulted in the form of an arch." See
Halliwell, p. '887, and Stratmann, p. 572, *. v. trenden (= " volvere ").
But I am at a loss how to explain why Mars is said to have put up
his throne in an arched recess, or compartment, of a building.
p. 28, 1. 957. sotne, a clerical error for sone.
p. 28, 1. 965. prymsauns of grene vere = " the earliest days of green
spring" (Glossary to the Roxb. Club ed.). This may be the sense;
but what is the literal meaning of. prymsauns? If we had prymtauns,
cr prymtaunce, we might be inclined to take it for a corruption of
French printemps, as we find pastaunce or pastance corrupted from
passe-temps. (See Skeat, Spec, of Eng. Literature, 460/149 and 427/
1096.) Cf. also the Romaunt of the Rose, 11. 3373-74 : " At prime
temps, Love to manace, Ful ofte I have been in this caas." Or is
prymtauns perhaps a clerical error for entrauns or entraunce ? This
would then make us think of such passages as the following one :
" Che fti ou mois de mai, a I' entree d'este",
Que florissent cil bos et verdissent cil pre."
lierabras, 11. 5094-5.
p. 28, 1. 966. spryngyn, the only instance of the 3rd person present
plural ending in -yn (for the common -en). This perhaps is due to
NOTES TO pp. 28 31, 11. 973 1067. 113
tlie scribe thinking already of the following yn in begynne. But it
must be stated that the whole passage is rather obscure. Neither the
meaning of springyn and begynne nor the connection of 1. 966 with
the following lines is very clear. Floures occurring twice looks also
somewhat suspicious. Moreover, these two stanzas do not well suit
the context and might easily be done without ; they are evidently
borrowed from some other poem. Observe besides the alliteration in
/loures, /Hthe. /reshly.
p. 28, 1. 973. lithe, "to hear." O.Icel. lilySa, " auscultare." ttrat-
mann, s. v. hltyen, p. 315.
p. 29, 1. 993. lese miswritten for lefe, which sense and rhyme require,
and which occurs in 11. 832, 1526.
p. 29, 1. 995. bassatours (?) = " vavassours, vavasors."
p. 29, 1. 999. Inde Major. The meaning of Major is not clear. Cf.
besides Chanson de Roland, ed. Gautier, Glossarial Index, s. v. Major.
Compare also Destr. 1. 690 : terre Majour.
p. 29, 1. 1000. The great number of geographical names contained in
these two lines is probably due to the favourite habit of mediaeval
romance writers, who thou-ght that they showed their geographical
knowledge by introducing long strings of names. Thus we find in
Web. Rom. II. 1. 632 et seq., the names of sixteen towns mentioned
in fourteen lines, all of which are said to have been visited by
Richard the Lion-hearted. Again in the same poem, 11. 3679, et seq.,
we find the names of thirteen countries occurring in ten lines. Cf.
also King Alls., Web. Rom. I. 11. 1440 and 1692. Often, too,
geographical names seem to be inserted on account of the rhyme, as
Chaunder in 1. 123. and Europe in 1. 1001.
p. 29, 1. 1008. Camalyon, "meaning, probably, the camelopardalis. The
blood of a cameleon would go a very little way towards satisfying a
thirsty Saracen " (Ellis, Metr. R. 387). Perhaps also the poet did
not know much of either of these two kinds of animals, and all he
wished was to cite an animal with some outlandish name.
p. 30, 1. 1025. southe: wrothe. The spelling sothe occurs in 11. 2014,
2024, 2246, 2719. There must be a lacuna of one or more lines here.
The rhyme-word to dute (1. 1024) is wanting; the context also
evidently shows that 11. 1025 and 1026, as they stand together, make
no sense. It is worth while to add that the next five lines, contrary
to the common usage of our poem, are all rhymed together.
p. 30, 1. 1040. Observe Paens. i. e. " pagans," used as a proper name
here; cf. the Destr. 1. 98, and Fierabras, 1. 5673.
p. 31, 1. 1051. For a description of Ferumbras, compare Fierabras, 11.
578 et seq., and 11. 611 et seq., and Syr Ferumbras, 1. 550.
p. 35, 1. 1060. trwes = trues, truce.
p. 31, 1. 1067. sex. So in the French Fierabras, 1. 84 :
" Ja n'en refuserai, par Mahom, jusqu'a vi."
CHARL. ROM. V. I'
114 NOTES TO pp. 31, 32, 11. 1071 1096.
In the English Ferumbras, 1. 102, we read :
" And J?O} J?er come twelve, J?e beste of J?y fered,
I will kuj?e on hem my mi^t, & dyngen hem al to douste."
p. 31, 1. 1071. in fere =" together." fere, literally "one who fares
with one," means " a travelling companion, a comrade, a mate ; a
company." O.E. (ge-)fera.
p. 31, 1. 1074. man =" bondman, subject, vassal." So in 11. 1354
p. 31, 1. 1077. childe, " young knight, young man." See Skeat's note
to Sir Thopas (Clarendon Press), 162/2020.
p. 31, 1. 1084. Cf. the French text :
" Sire, ce dist Rollans, chertes, tort en aves,
Car, par icel seigneur Ki Dix est appeles,
Je vauroie moult miex que fuissies desmenbres
Ke jou en baillasse armes ne ne fuisse adobes.
Hier quant paien nous vindrent & Tissue des gues
L. mile furent, a vers helmes jesm&s,
Grans caus en soustenimes sur les escus bandes ;
Oliviers mes compaigns i fu le jour navrSs.
Tout fuissons desconfit, c'est fines ve rite's,
Quant vous nous secourustes e vos riches Dame's,
Et paien s'en tournerent les frains abandonnes.
Quant fumes repairie" as loges et as tres,
Puis te vantas le soir, quant tu fus enivr6s,
Que li viel chevalier c'avoies amene
L'avoient moult miex fait que li joule d'ass^s,
Asses en fui le soir laidement rampone's."
Compare also Syr Ferumlras, 11. 144-163
p. 32, 1. 1088. of = " on account of."
p. 32, 1. 1092. According to most of the old romances Roland was
invulnerable. He never lost any blood by a wound but on tho
occasion when he was beaten by Charlemagne
" For trois goutes sans plus, quant Charles par irour
Le feri de son gant que le virent plousour."
See Histoire Poetique, p. 264.
The French text (11. 166-170) runs as follows :
" Karles trait son gant destre, qui fu & or parSs
Fiert le comte Reliant en travers sur le nes ;
Apres le caup en est li sans vermaus vo!6s.
Rollans jete le main au branc qui est Ietr6s ;
Ja en ferist son oncle se il n'en fust ostes."
p. 32, 1. 1094. atye, "to pay for, suffer for." In Mod. Eng. alye is
corrupted into abide. See Morris, Gloss, to Chaucer (Clarend. Press),
s. v. aboughte.
p. 32, 1. 1096. Double negatives like never none are pretty common in
mediaeval writers. Cf. in the Sowdan, 11. 1876, 2181, 2199, 2279,
NOTES TO pp. 32 34, 11. 1103 1164. 115
p. 32, 1. 1103. at one, " of one mind, agreement." Cf. King Horn, ed.
Lumby, 1. 925 :
" At on he was wijj J?e king."
Hence Mod. Eng. atone, " to set at one, to reconcile." See Zupitza's
note to Guy, 1. 5308.
p. 32, 1. 1106. to make voydaunce, the same as to voide, 1. 1768 = " to
quit, to depart from, to get rid of."
p. 32, 1. 1110. withoute more = " without delay, immediately." more
is O.E. mara, comparative to micel ; it is not the Latin more. See
Zupitza's note to Guy, 1. 719.
p. 33, 1. 1126. renewed, "tied." Fr. renouer, from nceud = Lat. nodius.
It is to be distinguished from renewed = " renovated," which occurs
in 1. 2200.
p. 32, 1. 1128. hidur is spelt hider in 11. 810, 833, etc.
p. 32, 1. 1135. Generyse. In the other versions Olyver calls himself
Garin. See Introduction on p. xxxiii.
p. 32, 1. 1141. lerne, " to teach." See Zupitza's note to Guy, 1. 6352.
scole, O.E. scul, Mod. Eng. school, means here " style, or manner of
fighting." It must not be confounded with schole, O.E. scolu, " troop,
band," Mod. Eng. shoal. Cf. also The Song of Roland, 129/786.
p. 33, 1. 1145. myghty men of honde. So in 1. 3029. The same phrase
occurs in M.H.Gr. " ein belt ze sinen handen" which is explained as
meaning, " a hero [or one who becomes a hero] by the strength of
his hands or arms." See Janicke's note to Biterolf, 5078, and
Grimm's Grammatik, IV. 727 note. The expression seems to be
originally French ; cf. Meon, Fabliaux, III. 478 : " chevaliers de sa
main"', Renard, ed. Martin, 1. 21409: " proedom de sa main."
Cf. also Roman des Eles, ed. Scheler, 1. 433, where main is wrongly
explained by the editor.
p. 33, 1. 1151. plete, " plead." The rhyme leads us to suppose that
the author pronounced plede, which indeed is the more common
p. 33, 1. 1154. and makes no sense here. thenkes must also be
incorrect, the 3rd person present singular always terminating in -eth
in this poem, and not in -es. Read as thenketh me ; thenketh me
occurs in 1. 465.
p. 34, 1. 1158. pight, "pitched, fixed." The infinitive mood is picclien ;
cf. O.Dutch picken, O.Icel. pikka, " pungere, pangere."
p. 34, 1. 1159. In the French Fierabras, 1. 606 et seq., Oliver also
assists the Saracen to put on his gear. This point is not mentioned
in the Ashmolean version, see Introduction, p. xxviii.
p. 34, 1. 1163. worthed up, l( became up, got up, mounted." It is the
past tense of the verb worthen, O.E. weorSan, " to become." Another
past tense of this verb is worth, 1. 1204.
p 34, 1. 1164. areest, or arest = "a rest, or support for the spear when
116 NOTES TO pp. 34 36, 11. 1167 1250.
couched for the attack " (Morris). Originally = " stoppage, waiting,
readiness." Cf. Matzner's Worterbuch, p. 107.
p. 34, 1. 1167. as fire of thonder, cf. dinte of thondir in 1. 1207.
p. 34, 1. 1168. to-braste, "burst in pieces." The prefix to-, answering
to Germ, zer-, has the force of " in twain, asunder."
p. 34 ; 1. 1170. threste, O.E. \rcBstan, " premere, trudere." The author
probably pronounced thraste, which will improve the rhyme.
p. 34, 11. 1179-80. upon the hcde (blank in MS) the hede. This is
evidently a mistake of the scribe ; sore, 1. 1180, too, which does not
rhyme with crowne, is probably miswritten for sone. The rhyme as
well as the context shows that the true reading is.:
" Olyver him hitte again
Upon the hede than fulle sone
He carfe awaye with myght and mayne
The cercle that sate uppon his crowne."
p. 34, 1. 1182. About the cercle, see Dernay, Le Costume de guerre,
p. 132. " Non seulement le cone du heaume (helrne) est borde par ce
cercle, mais il est parfois renforce dans toute sa hauteur par deux
aretes placees 1'une devant, 1'autre derriere, ou par qu'atre bandes de
metal ornementees (de verroteries), venant aboutir et se croiser a son
sommet." crowne means the " tonsure of the head," then topically
" the skull or head."
p. 34, 1. 1185. the botteles of bawme are not mentioned anywhere else
in the Sowdan ; the other versions tell us that the balm contained in
those vessels was the same as that with which Christ was anointed.
Cf. Syr Ferumbras, 11. 510 517 ; and see Introduction, p. vi and xxix.
p. 34, 1. 1191. the river. According to the oldest version of the poem
the whole combat took place on the shore of the Tiber, near Rome.
See Introduction, pp. xi and xxxii. Cf. Fierabras, 1. 1049 :
" Pres fu du far de Home, ses a dedes jetes,"
and Philippe Mousket, I. 4705-6 :
" Les .ii. barius qu'a Rome prist,
Si les gieta enmi le Toivre."
In the Sowdan as well as in the Ashmole MS. there is no mention of
Oliver's drinking of the bairn before throwing it into the water, which
both the Proven9al and the French versions tell us he did. Cf.
Fierabras, 11. 1031 1048, and the Proven9al version, 11. 1335,
p. 35, 1. 1210. fille, " fel."
p. 35, 11. 1221. dere spoils the rhyme. Read "/ree."
p. 36, 1. 1250. Cousyn to King Charles, cf. 1. 1117. In 11. 1499 and
1671 Oliver is said to be nephew to Charlemagne. He was the
son of Renier de Gennes, who according to Sir Ferumbras, 1. 652 :
" Y am Charlis emys sone " was the uncle of Charlemagne. In the
poem Girar de Viane we find Oliver among the enemies of the
NOTES TO pp. 36 38, 11. 1258 1320. 117
Emperor and fighting with Roland in close combat ; they are at
length stopped by divine interposition. Then began a close friend-
ship which lasted till their death at Roncesvaux. Oliver's sister
Aude was betrothed to Roland. See, besides, Syr Ferumbras, 11.
422, 1297, 1305, 1354.
p. 36, 1. 1258. harde grace, " misfortune," cf. 1. 2790.
p. 36, 1. 1259. Persagyn. This name does not occur in any other
version again, except in the Destruction, where one Persagon appears
in the list of the Saracen barons. But it is not stated there that he
is uncle to Ferumbras ; cf. besides Fierabras, 11. 2614, 2784.
p. 37, 1. 1263. Observe the four consecutive feminine rhymes.
p. 37, 1. 1277. The scene as related here widely differs from that
described in the Ashmolean version. In the Soivdone, Oliver gets
hold of the sword which is u trussed on Ferurnbras's stede." In the
Ashmolean poem it is not Oliver who is disarmed, but Ferumbras,
and Oliver allows him to pick up his weapon again. This in itself
furnishes us an argument for conjecturing that the author of the
Sowdon did not follow, or even know of, the Ashmolean version. In
the French poem, as well as in the Provei^al, it is likewise Oliver
who is disarmed. If in those poems we find mentioned besides that
Ferumbras offered his enemy to take up his sword again an incident
not related in the Sowdan we do not consider this to disprove our
supposition that the French version was the source of the Sowdan, as
we may consider our author in this case simply to have adhered to
his favourite practice of shortening his original as much as possible,
so far as no essential point is concerned. Cf. the French Fierabras,
p. 37, 1. 1286. saught is a misprint for raught.
p. 37, 1. 1289. He thought he quyte. quyte may be explained as
standing for quyted, or else he must be changed into to : He thought
to quyte, the latter reading is perhaps preferable. We find in 1. 3110 a
passage agreeing almost exactly with this.
p. 38, 1. 1298. Qwyntyn. The name of this Saint does not occur in
any other version of our romance.
p. 38, 1. 1308. There is no mention made of this prayer in the
Ashmolean version, the Sowdan here (11. 1308 1340) agrees again
with the French Fierabras, 11. 1164 1244 (and with the Proven9al
poem, 1. 1493, et seq.), with the only difference, that the prayer which
Charlemagne addressed to God, in order to bestow the victory upon
the Christian hero, is much longer in F, and is stuffed with so many
details of the Scripture, that in some way it may be regarded as a
succinct account of the whole life of the Lord.
p. 38, 1. 1320. skomfited = discomfited, 1. 1464. It is formed by the
same analogy as stroyeth = destroyeth. See note to 1. 780. The
substantive discunifiture, O.Fr. desconfiture, occurs in 1. 336 ; the same
118 NOTES TO pp. 32 40, 11. 13271383.
word, without prefix, is found in M.H.G., cf. Kudrun, ed. Martin,
" do si heten gerne die porten zuo getan
do muosten si daz lernen durch schumphentiuren verlan."
The Italian noun is sconfitta, and the verb sconfiggere.
p. 32, 1. 1327. God aboue does not rhyme with lord almighty. The
rhyme is easily restored if we read of might (cf. 1. 2059) for aboue,
and if we change almighty into almighte, so that we have :
1. 1327. " Tho Charles thanked God of myghte."
1. 1329. " And saide, ' blessed be thou, lord almyghte.' "
Tlie adjective almiyt is of frequent occurrence in Mid. Eng. writers.
So in Allit. Poems, I. 497 : "in sothful gospel of god almy^t ; " Syr
Ferumbras, 1. 3580, "God almy^te : si^te ; " ibid. 1. 3815, "god
almy^t : wy^t."
p. 39, 1. 1349. cas is an erratum for ras. " Ras, shave." " Rees
1693, evening." These explanations given by the editor of the
Roxb. Club ed. are wrong. Ras and rees being both derived from
O.E. rees, " impetus cursus," are indiscriminately used in three mean-
ings : (1) " onset, assault ; " (2) " course, run, rush, haste, hurry ; "
(3) " space, time, occasion." The last signification is well shewn
by the following passages :
" Hit lastej? but a lutel rees."
(a. Maydenhod, 1. 26.)
"pat ys to seye upon a rees,
Stynkyng Saxone, be on pees."
(Arthur, ed. Furnivall, 1. 525.)
In the Sowdan ras or rees means (1) "time, instant, occasion," 11.
1349, 1693 ; (2) " rush, hurry, haste," 11. 645, 489. rase, 1. 774 =
" current in the sea," the same word as the preceding ras and rees,
meaning properly, " a narrow rush, or violent current of water." See
Morris, Chaucer's Prologue (Clarendon Press), s. v. reyse. Cf. the
French expressions, u raz de mer," " raz de courent," " raz de maree."
p. 39, 1. 1361. sene: be. Read se as in 11. 1124, 658, 1826.
p. 40, 1. 1372. ryden, which does not rhyme with foghten, is evidently
a clerical error. I suppose soghten to be the true reading. For
examples of soght = " came, went, moved," see Zupitza's note to
Guy, 1. 7151, and Skeat's Glossary to Specimens, s. v. socht. There
is still another corruption in this passage, as assembled does not
rhyme with ordeyned.
p. 40, 1. 1380. Note the transition from, the indirect to the direct
p. 40, 1. 1381. As it stands, the line is too long and spoils the rhythm.
The words u if ye cast me downe " can be dispensed with,
p. 40, 1. 1383. thare : were (O.E. werian). The rhyme is easily
restored by reading there instead of thare, cf. 11. 2604, 2404, 2245,
etc. and see Introduction, p. xxxv.
NOTES TO pp. 41 43, 11. 1419 1475. 119
p. 41, ]]. 1419-22. Observe the weak rhymes alternating with the
p. 41, 1. 1420. brother means "brother-in-law." Oliver's sister Aude
was Roland's intended bride. Perhaps also brother may be taken
here in sense of " brother in arms," as in most romances we find
Roland and Oliver mentioned as a couple of true friends united by
the most tender ties of comradeship. Besides, Oliver was highly
indebted to Roland, who had rescued him when he had been made a
prisoner after his duel with Ferragus.
p. 41, 1. 1423. cowthe miswritten for caughte, which we read in 11.
p. 41, 1. 1424. Ascopartes is the correct form. See note on 1. 495.
p. 51, 1. 1427. foolde cannot be " earth " here, for which the editor of
the Roxburghe Club ed. takes it. Foolde is the participle past of
fealden, " to fold, plicare." It means, " folded, bent down, fallen."
This seems also to be the sense offolde in the following passages :
La^amon, 23983-4 :
"pa feol Frolle
folde to grunde.' 5
Ibid. 11. 27054-6 :
" Roman isce veollen
folden to grunden."
Ibid. 11. 20057-60 :
" he J>ohte to quellen
pe king on his >eode
& his folc valden
volden to grunde."
Cf. Slratmann, p. 194.
p. 41, 1. 1433. Roland and Olyver are taken prisoners. This incident
is differently related in the other poems. There Roland is not taken
at all, but sent afterwards among the messengers to the Soudan's
court. Together with Oliver four knights are taken, viz. Gwylmer,
Berard, Geoffrey and Aubry, who all are carried away by the flying
Saracens in spite of the efforts of Roland and Ogier.
p. 42, 1. 1451. what =" who" See Koch, Eng. Gr. II. 339, and
Skeat's note to Piers the Plowman (Clarendon Press), 113/19. So in
11. 1133, 1623.
p. 42, 1. 1456. astyte has nothing to do with the Latin astutus with
which the editor of the Roxb. Club ed. apparently confounds it in
explaining it as "cunningly devised." Astyte means "at once,
immediately, suddenly"; see Morris, Glossary to Allit. Poems. It
is a compound of the simple word tyte, " soon, quickly," which see
above, 1. 181.
p. 43, 1. 1475. Turpyn. The name of the archbishop is not mentioned
in the Ashmolean version. The French text, 11. 183640, runs as
120 NOTES TO pp. 43 47, 11. 1483 1619.
" Karles, nostre empereres, en est en pies Iev6s,
II apela Milon et Turpin 1'aloses,
Deus rices arcevesques de moult grant saintete" :
Faites moi tost uns fons beneir et sacrer ;
Je woel que cis rois soit bauptizi^s et leve's."
Cf. also the Pro verbal poem, 1. 1899, et seq.
p. 43, 1. 1483. nought for thane = " nevertheless," cf. Koch, Eng. Gr.
II. p. 473.
p. 43, 1. 1486. Rome is a corruption of Roye, as follows from the French
Fierabras, 1. 1851 :
" C'est sains Florans de Roie, ce dist 1'auctorites."
Cf. the Ashmole Ferumbras, 1. 1087, and Grceber, Zeitschrift fur
romanische Philologie, IV. p. 167.
p. 43, 1. 1495. affrayned, which must not be confounded with affray ed,
as the editor of the Roxburghe Club ed. does, means " asked, inquired."
It is the compound of freynen or fray nen, O.E. frignan, "to ask."
Goth, fraihnan. Germ, fragen.
p. 43, 1. 1497. allayned, " concealed." The simple verb layne (from
Icel. leyna, cf. Zupitza's note to Guy, 1. 2994) is still retained in the
Scottish dialect, with the sense of " to hide." Cf. also Morris, Allit.
Poems, Gloss, s. v. layned.
p. 43, 1. 1498. In the other poems the prisoners do not tell their true
names ; see Introduction, pp. xxvii and xxix ; and cf. Syr Ferumbras,
p. 43, 1. 1499. Roland is nephew to Charlemagne on his mother's side.
See note to 1. 1888, and cf. the Ashmole Ferumbras, 1. 2066. For
Oliver, see above, note to 1. 1250.
p. 44, 1. 1515. In the Sowdan Floripas herself advises Laban not to slay
his captives, but to imprison them. In the other versions it is one of
the barons who gives the same advice. See Introduction, p. xxviii.
p. 44, 1. 1538. depe : myrke. The rhyme will be restored by reading
dirke or derke instead of depe. derke occurs in 1. 2541.
p. 45, 1. 1604. maute. "In Old French maute is malice." Gloss, to
Roxburghe Club ed. I do not know whether maute exists in O.Fr.,
but even if it did, it would make no sense here. I feel sure maute
is a corruption of mynte or mente (cf. 1. 1784), the preterite of minten
or menten = " to aim a blow, to strike," from O.E. myntan, "to
intend, to purpose." See Zupitza's note to Guy, 1. 6579, and Morris,
Allit. Poems, s. v. mynte. Cf. also Syr Ferumbras, 1. 5587 :
" pan Charlis a strok till hym gan mynte;
Ac bym faylede of ys dynte,
for J?at swerd hym glente . . ."
p. 47, 1. 1615. trew instead of free will restore the rhyme. The same
rhyme trewe : newe occurs in 11. 67, 588.
p. 47, 1. 1619. fele sithe, "many a time, often." So in 11. 2740, 2815.
Cf. ofle sithe, 1. 916.
NOTES TO pp. 4749, 11. 1624 1698. 121
p. 47, 1. 1624. ruly, O.E. hreowlic = " rueful, sorrowful, mournful,
p. 47, 1. 1645. harme skathe makes no sense. Read harme & slcathe,
which occurs in Gen. and Exod. 1. 2314 :
" $is sonde hem overtake^ rafce
And bicalle<5 of harme and scaiSe."
p. 48, 1. 1665. In the French Fierabras (as well as in the Ashmolean
version) it is Roland whom Charlemagne addresses first (see above,
note to 1. 1433) ; he tells him that he must go on a mission to
demand the surrender of Oliver and his companions. Upon which
Naymes and the other twelve peers remonstrate, but are all sent to
Laban one after the other, just as in the Sowdan. In the Proven9al
poem it is only Guy who protests. Cf. 11. 2263-2282 of the French
"Rollant regarda tost, si 1'a araisonnS :
Biaus nes, ce dist li rois, trop sui por vous ires ;
Vous movres le matin, a Aigremore ires ;
Si d ire's 1'amirant, gardes ne li celes,
Rende moi la courone dont Dix fu courones
Et les autres reliques dont je sui moult pen6s;
Et en apres demant mes chevalier menbre's ;
Et se il ne le fait si que deviseres,
Dites jel ferai pendre par la goule & un trefs,
En destre le nienrai com .i. larron prov6,
Ne troverai putel ou il ne soit pass6." etc.
p. 48, 1. 1668. Cf. Fierabras, 11. 2309-2321, and Syr Ferumbras, 1. 1486-
p. 49, 1. 1683. lese, " lose." So in 1. 2655 and 1696, where it rhymes
with cliese, which occurs again in 11. 2748, 2934.
p. 49, 1. 1687. French text gives (11. 2297, et seq.) :
" Ogiers li boins Danois s'en est Iev6s en pie's :
Sire drois emperere, pour amour Dieu. oies :
Bien sai se il i vont ja n'en revenra pies.
Avoec ires, dist Karles, par les ex de mon cief :
Or i seres vous .v. qui porteres mes bries."
p. 49, 1. 1691. Bery must be rniswritten for Ten*y, as we find Tern's
d'Ardane in the French Fierabras, 1. 2290, and Terry of Ardane in
Syr Ferumbras, 1. 1469. According to 1. 3187 of Sir Ferumbras,
Thierry is the father of Berard (Bryer) of Mountdidier. Cf. the
French text, 11. 2290-96 and Syr Ferumbras, 11. 1468-1473.
p. 49, 1. 1693. rees, "time, occasion." See note to 1. 1349.
p. 49, 1. 1695. Folk Baliant is not mentioned in any other poem of
our romance. See Introduction, p. xxvii.
p. 49, 1. 1698. chese, O.E. ceosan, Mod. E. choose. It here means " to
be free to choose" : "You shall not be free to choose," "you shall
have no choice," "you shall do what you are ordered." See
Matzner's remark [in his Worterb., p. 562, s. v. cheosen\ to Halliwell,
Diet. p. 250.
122 NOTES TO pp. 49, 60, 11. 1699 1723.
p. 49, 1. 1699. Aleroyse. See note to 1. 884.
p. 49, 1. 1711. Turpyn. There was a real bishop of this name, who,
according to the Gallia Christiana, held the see of Reims from A.D.
753 to 794. As we find him described in the romances, Turpin was
the very type of a knight-bishop. In the poem of Aspremont, he
bears before the Christian army the wood of the true cross which in
his hands beams with brightness like the sun. In the romance of
the Enfances Ogier it was he, into whose custody Ogier was given,
when he had been made a prisoner after his revolt, in company with
the king of Lombardy, against Charlemagne (see above, note to
1. 856), and who, notwithstanding the order of Charles to have Ogier
starved to death, kept the Dane alive, who afterwards, when the
Saracens invaded France, proved a great help to the Christian arms.
As we read in the Chanson de Roland, 11. 2242ss, Turpin met his
death at Roncesvaux, but according to the Chronicle of Turpin, he
survived the disaster of Roncesvaux, and was saying mass for the
dead, when he saw the angels carrying the soul of Roland up to
heaven. But from Gaston Paris's Essay De Pseudo-Turpino we know
this chronicle to be an apocryphical book written by two monks of the
eleventh and twelfth century.
p. 49, 1. 1717. set not of youre barons so light = " do not count,
consider them so little." Cf. " to take one so lighte," in Syr
Ferumbras, 11. 114, 156.
p. 50, 1. 1721. gyfe no coost has the same meaning as give no tale =
" make no account, do not mind." See Zupitza's note to GUI/, 8143.
Cf. also Sowdan, 1. 2793, and Syr Ferumbras, 1. 5847, 101, 4975 ; and
also 11. 173, 1578.
p. 50, 1. 1723. Bryer of Mounte^ or Berard de Montdidier was
celebrated for his gallantries and attentions to the ladies :
" D'ardimen vail Rotlan et Olivier
E de domnei Berart de Mondesdier."
*. e. " In prowess I am equal to Rolland and to Oliver, in matters
of love to Berart of M." says the troubadour Peire Vidal in his poem
Dragoman seiner ; cf. also Fierabras, 11. 2125-7 :
" Je ne sai cui vous estes, car ne vous puis viser,
Mais je cuit c'as pucieles sives moult bien juer,
En cambre sous cortine baisier et acoler."
See, besides, Syr Ferumbras, 11. 422, 1297, 1305, 1354. This Bryer
of Mountes must be the same as the one slain in a sally of the
twelve peers, 11. 2604, 2622, because, according to 1. 1723, it was he
who was among the peers sent on a mission to the Soudan. There is
one Bryer of Brytaine occurring in 1. 886, whom one might be
inclined to think identical with Bryer of Mountes, as in 1. 886 he is
cited together with the other peers. But since we find him again as
the treasurer of Charlemagne (1. 3205), this is impossible, unless we
euppose the mention of Bryer in 1. 3205 to be owing to the absent-
NOTES TO pp. 50 55, 11. 1743 1892. 123
mindedness of the author, who may be accused of a similar inad-
vertency with regard to Rychard of Normandy ; cf. note to 1. 2797,
and Index of Names, s. v. Flagot.
p. 50, 1. 1743. Bronland. The true reading is Brouland, as shewn by
Fierabras, 11. 1549, 5174, &c. ; Destruction, 11. 1240-159, 441, and
Sowdan, 11. 1759, 2456. The Ashmole MS. has Bruyllant.
p. 51, 1. 1751. thane = "thane that." See Zupitza's note to Guy, 992,
p. 51, 1. 1778. charlce hardly makes sense here. It is perhaps a
clerical error for charge, " to command, to order." The sense would
then be, " and to tell him the Soudan's strict orders which by peril of
death ( upon life and Lithe) Labari recommended him to obey."
p. 51, 1. 1779. pen instead of pan would improve the rhyme.
p. 52, 1. 1788. lorde of Spay ne. Cf. the French expression, " arnirans
d'Espaigne," which we find so often used in the Destruction.
p. 52, 1. 1802. trappe is Mod. Eng. trape, which is used in the sense of
" to traipse, to walk sluttishly." Halliwell has "trapes = to wander
p. 52, 1. 1816. lyleved. Rhyme and sense will be improved by reading
p. 53, 1. 1854. tyme makes no sense here. Perhaps we ought to read
I dyne; cf. 11. 1508, 1114, 1837, and Syr Ferumbras, 1. 5621 :
" Oj^er elles }?oo shalt f?yn hefd forgon,
To morvven, or y wil dyne."
Fierabras, 1. 1914 :
" Ja mais ne mengerai si sera aesmembres.'
See also Guy, 1. 3695.
p. 54, 1. 1888. Syr Gy, nevew unto the king Charles. Cf. Fierabras, 11.
" On m'apele Guion, de Borgoigne f ui nes,
Et fils d'une des filles au due Millon d'Aingler.
Cousin germaiu Eollant, qui tant fait & douter."
Duke Milon d'Anglers was brother-in-law to Charlemagne, whose
sister Berte was Milon's wife and mother to Roland. Cf. Philippe
Mousket, 1. 2706-8 :
" S'ot Charles une autre sereur,
Bertain : cele prist & seigneur
Milon d'Anglers, s'en ot Eollant."
If, therefore, in the passage quoted above from Fierabras, Guy is said
to be the grandson of Milon, he must have been the grand-nephew
of Charlemagne, and nephew to Rollant. As we learn from the
French poem of Guy de Bourgoyne, Guy's father was Safnson of
Burgundy. Cf. besides, Histoire Poetique, p. 407, and Syr Femmbras,
11. 1922, 2091, 1410, etc.
p. 55, 1. 1892. And yet knowe I him noght. Floripas has already once
124 NOTES TO pp. 65 59, 11. 1927 2036
seen Guy when he was defeating Lukafer before Rome ; cf. Fierabras,
11. 2237-2245 :
".i. chevalier de France ai lontans ename
Guis a nom de Borgoigne. moult i a bel arme ;
Parens est Karlemaine et Rollant I'adure'.
Des que je fui a Rom me, m'a tout moa cuer enable"
Quant 1'amirans mes peres fist gaster la cite",
Lucafer de Baudas abati ens ou pre,
Et lui et le ceval, d'un fort espiel quarre.
Se cis n'est mes maris, je n'arai homnie ne ;
Pour lui voel je croire ou roi de sainte maiste."
See also Syr Ferumbras, 11. 2073-2087. Our line does not necessarily
imply a contradiction to the French text, as on the former occasion
she probably saw the duel from a great distance, when the latter's
features were hidden by his helmet. That she really did not
recognize him follows from the following passage of Fierabras, 1.
2800, et seq.
" Je aim en douce France .1. leger baceler."
" Dame, comment a nom ? " ce dist Ilollans li her
Et respont la puciele : " ja le m'orre's nomrner ;
Guis a nom de Borgoigne, moult i a bel arme."
" Par moil cief" dist Rollans "a vos ex le vees
N'a pas entre vous deus iiii pies mesures."
Besides there are numerous instances to be met with in mediaeval
poetry of persons enamoured of some one they had never seen :
" Ans no la vi et am la fort "
gays Guilhelin de Poitiers in speaking of his lady (Mahn, WerJce der
Troubadours, p. 3). Cf. also Hits. Rom. II. 19, and Web. Rom.
p. 55, 1. 1927. myghty seems to mean "excellent, delicious," rather
than " heavy."
p. 57,1. 1974. amonge, "every now and then, from time to time,
occasionally." See Zupitza's note to Guy, 2301. It is often used as
a kind of expletive,
p. 57, 1. 1995. foulis, " fools, foolish." Cf. the French text :
" Par Mahoun, dist li rois, trestout sontfol prove."
p. 57, 1. 1996. There is no mention made of this game in the Pro-
venal poem. It is described here even more explicitly than in the
French Fierabras, 11. 2907 2932. Cf. also Syr Ferumbras, 11. 2230
p. 57, 1. 1997. assorts = " assembly, company ; " by one assorte =
"in one company" (Halliwcll). It seems to be connected with sort
= "set, assemblage," see Skeat, Specimens of E. E., 425/999
p. 58, 1. 2000. i-fest : blast. Perhaps we ought to read i-fast.
p. 59, 1. 2036. maden orders. I do not know the exact meaning of this
expression. Perhaps it may be taken with the same sense as the
Mod. H. Germ, phrase = " ordnung schafTen," which literally means
NOTES TO pp. 59 64, 11. 2045 2238. 125
;< to set in order, to put matters straight," but is often used in the
sense of " to clear away," or, " to remove or despatch."
p. 59, 1. 2045. that lie wente awaye with lym = " that he had escaped
with (his limbs, or having) his limbs safe and sound, lyme, O.E.
Urn., Mod. Eng. limb.
p. 59, 1. 2052. tho = O.E. J}a, " those, them," it is used as a definite
article in 1. 2063.
p. 59, 1. 2057. amapide, miswritten for awapide (Heritage), " astounded,
bewildered." Cf. Stratmann, p. 10. Matzner, Worterbuch, p. 150,
connects it with Goth, afhvapjan, " to suffocate." We find m written
for w several times in our poem ; thus we read gamylokes for ga\vy-
lokes in 1. 2650, and romme for row/we in 1. 876.
p. 60, 1. 2085. Assyne. The rhyme shows that Assye is the true
reading. Assye occurs in 11. 102, 123.
p. 60, 1. 2093. wone, "heap, plenty.". O.Icel. wan. See Zupitza's note
to Guy, p. 444.
p. 61, 1. 2119. Brenlande. It ought to be Breuland or Brouland ; see
above note to 1. 1743.
p. 61, 1. 2120. The first foot in the line consists of the single word
what. Thus in 11. 2288, 2374, 2394, etc.
p. 62, 1. 2145. Espyarde. This name only occurs in this poern. In
Syr Ferumbras, 1. 3824, the messenger sent to the bridge-keeper is
called Malyngryas, There is no name mentioned in the French
Fierabras, 1. 4265.
p. 62, 1. 2156. That no man by the brigge. There is no verb in the
sentence. Perhaps we ought to read that no man passe by the brigge,
or, that no man passe the brigge.
p. 63, 1. 2191. Cf. the description of the giant in Fierabras, 11. 4740-
4755, and Syr Ferumbras, 11. 4435 4441.
p. 63, 1. 2199. nolch not. See note to 1. 1096.
p. 64, 1. 2225. The line is too long. Wilde can be dispensed with,
and instead of horses we may read hors ; cf. Skeat, Gloss, to Prioress's
Tale (Clarendon Press), s. v. hors.
p. 64, 1. 2233. a magnelle, "a mangonel," an ancient military engine
used for battering down walls (Halliwell). Magnelle is the O.Fr.
Mangonel, or Mangoneau, the Italian manganello (= " arbalist, cross-
bow "). The latter is the diminutive form of mangano, " a sling ; "
Greek, payyarov. See Diez, Etym,. Wdrterb., I. 261.
p. 64, 1. 2238. Cornel or camel, Fr. camel, Mod.Fr. creneau, " battle-
ment, pinnacle." Literally it means, " a piece carved out," i. e. ot
the wall on the top of a building ; the French verb carneler or
crcneler signifying, " to carve out, to jag, to notch." Camel is
derived from Latin crena (See Diez, Gramm., I. 14), which means "a
notch, a cut, an incision " (Diez, Etym. Wdrterb., II. 266). Thus
camel came to denote a battlement or indented parapet ; or more
126 NOTES TO pp. 65 68, 11. 2245 2351.
exactly it was applied to those parts of the wall projecting upwards
between the openings or embrasures. It was one of these projecting
portions that was here knocked down. Cf. also Syr Ferumbras, 1.
p. 65, 1. 2245. The line is too long. Perhaps or he hit may be dis-
p. 65, 1. 2247. The episode of Marsedag being slain by Guy is not
found in any other poem of this romance.
p. 65, 1. 2271. Alkaron, "the Koran," al is the Arabic article. There
is a god named Alcaron occurring in 1. 2762.
p. 66, 1. 2282. dye: waye. See 1.441. forfamelid = " famished,
starved to death." I am not aware of any other instance of this
word. Halliwell has " famele = to be famished." The prefix for-
has intensive or augmentative power ; it is particularly used in past
participles. See Matzner's Grammatik, I 2 . 542.
p. 66, 1. 2290. faile is the infinitive mood = " to be wanting, to
become deficient." " Roland seeing the ladies white and pale (with
hunger) and (seeing) the bread wanting on their table spoke some
words of lamentation," etc.
p. 66, 1. 2303. forcere, " chest, coffer." For the etymology see
Diez, Worterb., II. 31, 8. v. forziere.
p. 66, 1. 2309. As it stands the line is too long. As you and that may
be dispensed with, we ought perhaps to read, / pray ye wole us alle
p. 66, 1. 2310. saule, " fill, hunger satisfied to repletion." The rhyme
shows that the last syllable is accentuated. Therefore it cannot be
derived from the French soul (Gloss, to Roxb. Club ed.), but from
p. 66, 1. 2311. yede = "went." Not from O.E. eode, but from ge-
eode. See Zupitza's note to Guy, 1. 60, and Skeat, Piers the Plowman
(Clarendon Press), 94/40.
p. 66, 1. 2312. vertue : fewe ; the rhyme is perfect, see the Abstract of
Mr. Nicol's paper in the Academy of June 23, 1877 (vol. xi. p. 564,
p. 66, 1. 2313. We must scan this line thus :
And diden it aboute hem everychon.
^"^^^^ ^ ^
-en in diden is mute ; see Introduction, p. xxxix.
p. 67, 1. 2326. ginne = " engin, contrivance, trick." See note to 1.
p. 67, 1. 2337. lefte. The rhyme shows that the author pronounced
lafte, which we find in 1. 426.
p 68, 1. 2351. Cf. Fierabras, 11. 30463097. In the Prove^al poem
Maubyn or Malpi, as he is called in Proven9al, enters the room by
means of a charm which makes the door open itself:
NOTES TO pp. 68 73, 11. 2365 2538. 127
*' Vengutz es al fossat, pres de la tor cayrada.
Tantost intret dedins cuendamens a celada,
Venc a 1'us de la cambra : si la trobet tancada.
Eta dit son conjur : tota s'es desfermada."
p. 68, 1. 2365. The rhyme is restored if we read ledde instead of ladde.
See 1. 1651.
p. 69, 1. 2390. By God and seynte Mary, myn avour. I think the
words myn avoure are due to the scribe, not to the author, as they
spoil the rhythm. So we get Mary : we. This rhyme, although
not perfect, is of no rare occurrence in Mid. Eng. works, see Introduc-
tion, p. xliv. As to the spelling of avour I am not aware of any
other instance of this form of the. word. There is a form avyowre
cited by Halliwell. Besides, avoury and avowery, which he quotes
under different heads, are perhaps only different spellings of the same
p. 69, 1. 2399. slepinge must be altered into slepande in order to restore
the rhyme. The author employed -and and -ynge as terminations of
the present participle. See Introduction, p. xxxviii.
p. 69, 1. 2421. also belongs to 1. 2422.
p. 70, 1. 2433. so mete I spede, " as I may succeed." See Zupitza's
note to Guy, \. 615.
p. 71, 1. 2477. and now is perhaps miswritten for inow ; cf. the French
text, 1. 3803 :
'' Tant y a plates d'or, nus nes porroit nombrer."
p. 71, 1. 2482. wast gives no sense. Perhaps we ought to read
p. 72, 11. 2491 2502. The arrangement of the stanzas seems, as
regards the rhymes, to be incorrect.
p. 72, 1. 2507. In the Ashmole Ferumbras this episode of the Soudan
breaking the image of Mahound is omitted. In the French text he
only threatens to make him cry, as soon as he gets hold of him, but
he is rebuked by Sorbrance telling him that Mahomet being over-
tired with guarding the treasure has only fallen asleep. Cf. Fierabras,
p. 72, 1. 2512. ore, O.E. ar, " mercy, favour." Thyn ore = " grant
us thy favour," "have mercy upon us," or, "with thy favour."
p. 73, 1. 2535. Richard of Normandy appearing here as in the French
Fierabras, among the twelve peers besieged by the Soudan, without
having been mentioned before in the number of the knights sent on
a mission by Charles, furnishes us with an argument in support of our
supposition that the French Fierabras was the source of our poem.
See Introduction, p. xxx, and of Fierabras, 11. 3957 3994, and Syr
Ferumbras, 1. 4921.
p. 73, 1. 2538. wynde : hende ; wende which occurs in 1. 2328 would
improve the rhyme.
128 NOTES TO pp. 73 77, 11. 2549 2698.
p. 73, 1. 2549. paramour = " object of chivalrous affection and
p. 73, 1. 2557. wronye, preterite of luringe, " to press well out, force
p. 73, 1. 2558. Does thile stand for while, as then, 1. 2527, seems to be
miswritten for when ? Or is thile = the while ?
p. 74, 1. 2564. sloughe : droive. Bead slowe, as in 11. 2401, 2683, 304,
p. 75, 1. 2597. itolde, " in number," see Zupitza's note to Guy, 1770.
p. 75, 1. 2614. quell = " kill," which occurs in 1. 3006.
p. 75, 1. 2616. bistadde, " hard bestead, greatly imperilled."
p. 75, 1. 2617. japed, " mocked, tricked, laughed at." Connected with
Icel. gabba, " to mock."
p. 76, 1. 2639. ilia. See Introduction, p. xxxvii.
p. 76, 1. 2651. lurdeyn, Mod. Eng. lurdan, which is said to be the Fr.
lourdin (diminutive of lourd). Regarding it as a corruption of " lord
Dane " is a mere joke :
" In every house lord Dane did then rule all,
Whence laysie lozels lurdanes now we call."
Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 588.
p. 76, 1. 2654. sewes. See Skeat, Prioress's Tale, p. 286.
p. 76, 1. 2660. let armes makes no sense. Read as armes As armes
= Fr. aux armes, " to arms," is of pretty frequent occurrence in
Mid. Eng. poems; see Matzner's Worterb., p. 112. Cf. also Syr
Ferumbras, 1. 2933 :
<; As armes," Jjanne cride Rolond,
" As armes everychone ! "
Cf. ibidem, 1. 4125. So we read in the Destruction, 1. 1460 .
<; Ore as armes, seignours, franc chevalier membre."
Perhaps we ought to read as armes also in 1. 491, where the reading
and armes is somewhat suspicious, since armes, if we regard and
armes to be the true reading, would be the only instance of the
imperative plural ending in -es (instead of -eth) in the Sowdan.
p. 77 1. 2689. Thay thanked God that thay him hadde Gyfe thaye
suche grace to spede. These lines are corrupt. I propose to read :
" Thay thanked God that hem hadde
Gyfen suche grace to spede."
p. 77, 1. 2694. alaye, written as one word in the MS., must be divided
into two, a being the indefinite article, and laye meaning lt un-
ploughed ground, field, pasture, meadow." Mod. Eng. ley, lea, lay
See Stratmann, s. v. ley, p. 356.
p. 77, 1. 2698. he, " they." This is the only instance of he instead of
the common thay. But he, which is further confirmed by the rhyme,
must certainly be attributed to the author; thay occurs only once
NOTES TO pp. 78 81, 11. 2706 2810. 129
(1. 3021) as a rhyme, but the rhyme is not a good one, and there also
it would be preferable to read he.
p. 78, 1. 2706. by my thrifte, the same as " so mote y thryve," or, " so
mote y spede " = u as (verily as) I may thrive," " hi truth."
p. 78, 1. 2707. see ; cf. Zupitza's note to Guy, 163.
p. 78, 1. 2719. wole : skille. The rhyme shows that wole cannot be
due to the author ; we must read wille (or welle which occurs 1. 2633).
p. 78, 1. 2732. bikure or bykeringe, 1. 2559 = " fight, battle, skirmish. 1 '
Er durste bikure abide. The subject is wanting, see note to 1. 67. Or
is there any corruption in this line ? Perhaps we ought to read :
"Lenger durste [thay] no bikure abyde." Cf. 11. 3117, 2610, 2947.
p. 79, 1. 2748. love. The rhyme requires kef or leeve. leef, O.E. leof,
means "dear, beloved." For examples of leef being used as a sub-
stantive, see Stratmann, p. 359.
p. 80, 1. 2793. eye, " egg." See Koch, Eng. Gr. II. 582, and compare
the French phrase " valoir un cetif pele."
p. 80, 1. 2797. and his meyne. This must be a mistake of the author
himself. According to 1. 2557, Richard had ventured alone on a
mission to Charlemagne. There is no mention whatever made
afterwards that he was joined by any one ; the other poems likewise
state that Richard was without any companion.
p. 80, 1. 2805. lete : gate. The rhyme requires late.
p. 81, 1. 2810. cliffe. Here the author of the Sowdan goes so far in
shortening his original as to be wholly unintelligible. Indeed, any
reader, not comparing these lines with corresponding passages in the
French poem, will be left without any clue to what cliff is here
intended to mean. From the French Fierabras we know that the
water of the river was very deep and broad, and that the banks were
exceedingly steep and almost inaccessible. Cf. Fierabras, 11. 4349 :
" Et voit 1'augue bruiant, le flot parfont et le."
1. 4358 : u La rive en est moult haute, bien fait a redouter." Cf. also
the Proven9al poem, 11. 3733, et seq. :
" Richart regarda Taygua. que fe mot a duptar,
E fo grans e preonda, que no y auza intrar,
E la riba fou auta de C pes ses gaber."
Now it was by means of a twofold myracle tha't the Christian knight
was enabled to cross the river :
(1) The waters suddenly increased and rose so as to reach the very
top of the banks ; cf. Fierabras, 11. 4365-69 :
" Or oies quel vertu Diex i vaut demonstrer
Por le roi Karlemaine, qui tant fait a douter.
Anyois que on eust une liuee ale,
Veissies si Flagot engroissier et enfler,
Que par desous la rive commence wonder.*
Provensal, 11. 3741-45:
CHARL. ROM. V. K
130 NOTES TO p. 81, 11. 2811 2820.
" Ara podetz auzir, si m voletz escoutar :
Tan bela meravilha li vole dieus demostrar
Per lo bon rey de Fransa que el vole tant amar ;
Ans un trag de balesta pogues lunhs horn anar,
Pogratz vezer Flagot sus la riba nwntar"
(2) A deer appears and shows Richard the way across the river to
the top of the opposite bank.
" A tant es vous .i. cerf, que Diex i fist aler,
Et fu blans comme nois, biaus fu A, resgarder.
Devant le her Biehart se prent & dernostrer,
Devant lui est tantost ens en Flagot entres.
Li dus voit Sarrazins apres lui aroutes,
S'il ot paour de mort ne fait & demander.
Apres le blance bisse commencha & errer
Tout ainsi com ele vait, lait le ceval aler ;
Et li ciers vait devant, qui bien s' i sot garder,
D'autre part & la rive se prent a ariver."
Cf. also the Proven9al version, 11. 3751-54 :
" Apres la blanca bestia laycha '1 destrier anar.
E lo cer vay denan, que 1 saup mot ben guizar,
De 1'autra part de 1'aygua 1'a fayt ben aribar,
E die HS a fayt Flagot en son estat tornar? '
This bank which formerly was steep and inaccessible, but is now
covered with water, is called cliff \>y our poet. In the Ashniolean poem
the first miracle is not mentioned ; cf. Syr Ferumbras, 11. 31)43, et seq.
p. 81, 1. 2811. he blessed him in Godis name. The phrase occurs also
in Syr Ferumbras, 1. 3961, but is not to be found in the French text.
Mr. John Shelley (in his paper printed in the Annual Report and
Transactions of the Plymouth -Institution, IV. i. 71) took this phrase
as a proof that the original of the Sowdan could not have been the
French poem. But it must be stated that as in the Sowdan, 1.
2807, so in the French version Richard is said to have addressed a
prayer to God :
" Escortrement commence Jhesu a reclamer :
Glorieus sire pere, qui te laissas pener
En la crois beneoite pour ton pule sauver,
Garisies hui mon cors de mort et d'afoler,
Que je puisse Karlon mon message conter."
Fierdbraa, 11. 4360-f>4.
If now we consider that some lines back (1. 4093) the French poem
expressively states that Richard seeing himself hard pressed by the
Saracens, signed himself with the sign of the cross
" Lors a leve* sa main, de Jhesu s'est siguies "
an incident which at that moment is omitted in the Sowdan we
think ourselves entitled to regard this proof as not very convincing,
p. 81, 1. 2820. Ganelon, one of Charlemagne's officers, who by his
treachery was the cause of the defeat of Roncesvaux, the death of
Roland, etc., for which he was torn to death by horses. For
NOTES TO pp. 81 88, 11. 2845 3084. 131
several centuries his name was a synonymous word with traitor.
Gando = Germ. Wenhilo.
p. 81, 1. 2845. Fremoundfi cannot be the true reading, as it does not
rhyme with Idnge. Besides Fremounde does not occur again in the
poem. Perhaps we ouglit to read Qwyntyne, as in 1. 1298. In the
corresponding passage of the French Fierabras (1. 4625) it is to St.
Denis that Charles swears ; cf. also Syr Ferurnbras, 1. 4289.
p. 82, 1. 2850. And makes no sense. Read " God"
p. 83, 1. 2887. f/ryse : assaye. We get a perfect rhyme if we read
gray instead of gryse. Hull i well, s. v. "gray," has: "the skin or
fur of a badger."
p. 83, 1. 2891. As it stands, the line does not rhyme with 1. 2893. The
rhyme will bo restored if we read :
" Lycence gete ye noone nere" or perhaps
" Lycence gcte ye of me nere,"
nere meaning ne'er, never, as in Guy, 10550 and 10716.
p. 84, 1. 2939. The name of the giantess is Amiette or Amiote in the
p. 84, 1. 2941. This line is too long ; as Ipilclce may be omitted.
p. 84, 1. 2942. bydene, " immediately, all at once." On the etymology
see Zupitza's note to Guy, 2408.
p. 85, 1. 2981. ayene means " back." So in Genesis and Exodus, 1.
1097 : "And bodem hem and tagten wel
<5at here non wente agen."
Again, 1. 3267 : $ quo $en he 'wende agen,
An israel folc lete we ben.' "
p. 86, 1. 3020. As it stands, this line does not scan well. Perhaps we
may read month instead of monthes, and childre instead of children,
and scan the line thus :
Found two childre of seven month oolde.
p. 87, 1. 3021. tliay : Normandy. The rhyme, though imperfect, can-
not be objected to ; but as the rhyme e : y (i) is frequently employed
by our author (see Introduction, p. xliv), and was of rather common use
about that period (see Ellis, Pronunciation, I. 271), we might incline
to the supposition that he is the true reading. Cf. besides 1. 2698.
p. 87, 1. 3034. mene makes no sense. Perhaps we ought to read :
mete, " food."
p. 87, 1. 3044. In the French poem, 1. 5108, Hoel and Riol are
appointed governors of Mantrible, whereas Richard goes on with
Charles and commands one of the divisions of his army (1. 5577).
Cf. Syr Ferumbras, 1. 5643.
p. 88, 1. 3062. coost, " country, region." See Matzner's Worterb., 487.
p. 88, 1. 3084. In the Fierabras, 1. 5374, it is Naymes who first
recognizes the banner of France ; cf. Syr Ferumbras, 1. 5209.
132 NOTES TO pp. 89 95, 11. 3098 3274.
p. 89, 1. 3098. of the EtUopes = " some of the Ethiopians." This
may be regarded as an example of the partitive use of of. Cf.
Znpitza's note to Guy, 1961.
p. 89, 1. 3103. alto hewe must be more correctly written al to-hewe ;
to-, as a mere prefix (signifying " in twain, asunder, apart " = Germ.
zer) belongs essentially to the verb ; the intensive adverb al ( =
" utterly, omnino,") used before verbs beginning not only with to-,
but also before other prefixes, still further strengthens, and belongs
to, the whole expression. So al to-treden, 1. 1382, to-braste, 1. 11G8.
p. 89, 1. 3122. Belmore. Perhaps identical with Belmarine.
p. 90, 1. 3130. wode-wroth, " madly angry." Cf. Skeat, Specimens of
Early Eng. Lit., 80/37.
p. 90, 1. 3141. game, " sport, joke, affair."
p. 90, 1. 3154. hat, " be called." See note, 1. 613.
p. 91, 1. 3164. bronde, " sword." In the next line bronte means " blow,
p. 91, 1. 3189. lande: commaunde. See note, 1. 59.
p. 91, 1. 3191. The rhyme is spoiled. Perhaps than must be transposed
so that we get the rhyme baptysed : imaryed.
p. 92, 1. 3210. there to abide in store = " to be kept in store " ; cf.
Skelton, ed. Dyce, I. 162, .221.
p. 92, 1. 3227. victory = " booty, spoils of victory, trophy."
p. 92, 3. 3232. the hyer honde to have = " to have conquered or
vanquished." The same phrase is found in M. H. G. ; cf. Hartrnann's
Iwein, ed. Lachmann, 1. 1537-8 :
" Vrou Minne nam die obern hant,
daz si in vienc unde bant."
p 93, 1. 3236. In the French Fierabras, 1. 6082, et seq., and in the
Proven9al poem, 1. 5067, et seq., the relics are distributed as follows :
Part of the crown and one nail to St. Denis, and " li signcs," the
winding-sheet of the Lord, to Compiegne. There is no mention
made of the cross in the French poem (see note to 1. 665) ; cf. Introd.
pp. 1 and liv.
p. 93, 1. 3253. According to the Chanson de Roland, Ganelon has
been drawn and quartered in a field near Aix-la-Chapelle.
p. 94, 1. 3254. By lawe, cf. Syr Ferumbras, 1. 307 : " As for tray tours
^af J?e lawe.' 1 On this law compare Leon Gander's note to 1. 3736 of
the Chanson de Roland.
p. 95, 1. 3274. The French poem ends with the assertion of the poet
(or the scribe) that whoever has well listened to this romance will
find every part of it good and excellent, the opening, the middle, and
the end :
" De cest roumant est boine et la fin et 1'entree,
Et enmi et partout, qui bien Pa escoute*e."
O.E. = Old English or Anglo Saxon. O.Fr. = Old French.
32/1094 = page 32, line 1094.
ABYE, 32/1094, vb. to pay for, ex-
piate. O.E. abycgan.
adaunte, 28/957, vb. to subdue.
Fr. danter, donter, dompter.
aferde, 39/1337, pp. afraid. O.E.
affrayned, 43/1495, pt. 8. asked.
afraye, 26/896, sb. disturbance,
agreved, 29/992, pp. aggrieved.
alayned, 43/1497, pt. s. concealed,
dissembled. Icel. leyna.
alle and some, 22/749, altogether,
almiht, 38/1329, adj. See note.
ameved, 29/994, pp. moved,
ampnge, 57/1994, adv. in the mean
time, now and then, sometimes.
See note to I. 1974.
aplight, 17/573, adv. certainly, in-
deed. See note.
areeste, 34/1166, sb. rest, support.
arson, 41/1410, sb. pommel. Fr.
aspied, 10/314, pp. espied. Fr.
assaye, 83/2889, sb. value. Fr.
assorte, 57/1997, sb. assembly,
company. See note.
assoyled, 70/2455, pt. pi. absolved.
astraye, 16/532, adv. out of the
right way, roving about without
astyte, 42/1456, adv. immediately.
asure, 5/134, sb. azure.
atame, 27/935, vb. to tame, sub-
due. O.E. atamian.
atone, 32/1103, agree.
attones, 31/1067, at once.
avente, 36/1237, vb. to take breath.
avoure, 69/2390, sb. protection,
avyse, 49/1716, vb. to consider, ad-
vise with one's self. Fr. aviser.
awapide, 59/2057, pp. astounded,
bewildered. See note.
ayene, 85/2981, adv. back.
Bandon, 19/636, sb. disposal,
bassatours (?), 29/995, sb. vavas-
bawson, 2/52, sb. badger,
baye, 27/940, sb. recess, niche.
beckyn, 3/64, vb. beckon. O.E.
bedight, 88/3070, vb. to dispose, to
surrender, to send forth,
behight, 25/859, pt. s. promised.
bende, 13/420, vb. to direct,
bente, 20/665, adj. bent, crooked.
benysone, 9/289, sb. blessing. Fr.
bette, 49/1716, adv. better.
bikure, 78/2732, si. skirmish,
bispake, 5/165, pt. s. spoke with,
bistadde, 75/2616, pp. placed in
peril, hardly bestead. Of. O.E.
stee$<5an. Dan. bestede.
biwry, 46/1580, vb. betray. O.E.
bloo, 29/1005, adj. blue. IceL blar.
blynne, 70/2442, vb. to cease, stop.
bobaunce, 7/211, sb. boasting,
boure, 54/1870, sb. a lady's apart-
ment, boudoir. O.E. bur.
bowe, 53/1853, sb. bough, branch.
braide, 32/1098, pt. s. drew. O.E.
brayde, 8/247, sb. craft, deceit,
artifice. See note.
breddes, 5/131, sb. birds. O.E.
broke, 57/1965, vb. to break,
bronte, 91/3166, sb. blow,
buskede, 31/1055, pt. s. prepared,
arrayed. Icel. buask.
by, 3/87, vb. buy, pay. O.E. byc-
bydene, 84/2942, immediately.
Originally mid ene. See note.
bygone, 3/79, pp. afflicted. See
bykeringe, 74/2595, sb. skirmish,
by than, 10/344. See note.
Camalyon, 29/1008, sb. camel-
leopard. See note.
carrikes, 4/118, a kind of large
ship. See note.
caste, 12/394, sb. plan, stratagem ;
60/2091, the throwing; 71/2471,
missile. See note to 1. 394.
ceased, 89/3109, pt. s. seized.
chaffer, 83/2885, sb. merchandise.
O.E. ceap, faru.
charke, 51/1778, vb. to creak,
crack. See note.
chek, 8/189, sb. a checkered cloth.
chere, 6/201, sb. demeanour, be-
chere, 80/2781, sb. friendliness,
chere, 87/3030, adj. pleased, merry.
chese, 49/1698, vb. to be free to
choose. O.E. ceosan.
clepeth, 24/809, pr. s. calls.
clipped, 56/1935, pt. pi. embraced,
hugged. O.E. clyppan.
clog, 46/1603,. sb. " truncus,"
cloute, 58/2014, sb. blow.
combrest, 83/2909, pr. s. encum-
berest. Fr. combrer.
coost, 50/1721, sb. regard, account.
Cornell, 64/2238, sb. shaft of a
pinnacle or battlement. O.Fr.
carnell. See note to 1. 2238, and
compare Du Cange, s. v. quarn-
ellus : "pinna inuri per quam
| milites jaculantur."
coude, 16/541, pt. s. knew.
couusail, 46/1590, secret.
Befouled, 7/233, pp. polluted. Cf.
O.E. fylan, fulian.
delte, 16/526, pp. dealt,
dere, 92/3202, vb. to harm, injure.
derke, 73/2541, adj. dark,
dewe, 70/2452, adj. due.
dight, 79/2763, pp. dressed, pre-
pared. O.E. dihtan.
dinge, 26/880, vb. to dash, beat.
Cf. Icel. dengja,
dirke, 44/1539. See note.
dobbet, 33/1136, pp. dubbed. O.E.
dubban. Fr. dober.
dome, 14/478, sb. glory,
don, 88/3078, vb. cause, order
donne, 11/347, adj. dun.
dowte, 9/297, sb. fear,
dradde, 36/1232, pt. s. feared. C
dresse, 49/1702, vb. to direct one's
self, go, start. Fr. dresser.
dromonde, 3/63, sb. vessel of war.
dute, 30/1024, sb. duty. Deriv. of
due, dewe. Fr. deu.
Egre, 29/1009, vb. to excite, to
eke, 20/662, adv. also. O.E. eac.
engyn, 28/948, sb. a skilful contriv-
ance. Fr. engin.
ensample, 27/931, sb. example.
entente, 16/550, vb. to turn one's
attention to, to try to get, to
entente, 28/945, sb. meaning, will,
erille, 11/368, sb. earl.
orraunte, 5/139, quick, immedi-
eye, 80/2793, sb. egg. O.E. seg.
Fade, 20/678, vb. to dispose, to
arrange, to set up (?).
fade, 30/1033, adj. weak, faint,
faste, 32/1086, adv. much, greatly,
fat, 90/3152, sib. vat, tub. O.E.
fauchon, 76/2650, sb. a sword or
faye, 26/900, vb. truth, faith,
fele, 47/1619, adj. many
felle, 29/1004, adj. fierce, furious,
felte, 41/1405, pt. s. made fall,
fende, 92/3231, pp. defended, pro-
fere, 36/1248, sb. fear. O.E. fser.
fere, 44/1505, sb. companion. In
fere, 31/1071, together,
fere, 2/59, vb. to terrify,
ferre, 4/103, adv. far.
fet, 91/3188, pp. fetched,
fille, 35/1210, pt. s. fell,
lleen, 88/3065, to flay. O.E. flan.
folde, 71/1427, pp. felled, knocked
forcere, 66/2303, sb. che.t, coffer.
for-famelid, 66/2282, pp. entirely
foule, 77/2686, vb. foul luck, mis-
fowarde, 15/502, 22/732, sb. van-
frankensense, 20/679, sb. an odor-
ous resin, pure incense.
fraye, 15/514, vb. to frighten, at-
frike, 4/104, adj. quick, bold,
frith, 2/43, sb. enclosed wood.
froo, 79/760, prep. from.
fyne, 9/306, sb. end.
Game, 90/3141, sb. affair ; 92/3199,
pleasure. O.E. gamen.
gan, 16/549, pt. s. began,
gayylok, 41/1426, sb. a spear or
javelin. O.E. gafoluc.
geaunesse, 84/2943 (?), sb. giantess,
geder, 45/1553, vb. to gather. O.E.
glased, 35/1208, pt. s. glided. O.Fr.
glacier. See Zupitza's note to
Guy, 1. 5067.
glede, 7/205, sb. a glowing coal,
ember. O.E. gled.
god, 3/67, adj. versed in, master
gome, 5/144, sb. man. O.E. guina.
gonge, 84/2934, vb. to go. O.E.
goulis, 6/189, sb. gules, a red
colour. Fr. geules.
gray, 83/2887, sb. the fur of a gray,
or badger. O.E. grseg.
gree, 82/2850, sb. grace, favour.
Fr. gre. Lat. gratum.
grenned, 84/2948, pt. s. grinned,
roared. O.E. grennian.
grevaunce, 29/993, sb. grievance,
greved, 45/1543, pt. s. grieved,
grith, 82/2850, sb. peace, agree-
ment. O.E. grifc.
gryse, 83/2887, sb. a kind of fur.
guttis, 39/1351, sb. guts. O.E.
gydoure, 5/163, sb. leader, guide.
gynne, 67/2326, sb. enginne, con-
Harde, 59/2056, pt. s. beard.
hat, 90/3154, vb. to be called. O.E.
be, 77/2698, pron. nominat. tbay.
lieede, 62/2158, sb. bead. O.E.
bende, 73/2536, adj. gentle, polite.
bennys, 55/1922, adv. bence. O.E.
bente, 40/1370, vb. bold, take.
bie, 14/455, sb. baste,
bigbt, 18/613, pt. s. promised;
36/1242, art called. O.E. bebt.
bonde of bonde, 12/394, in close
boole, 32/1119, adj. whole, sound.
burle, 27/929, vb. to jostle, to
strike. A contraction of hurtle.
hurteled, 24/831, pt. pi. clashed
against, jostled. Frequentative
of hurt. Fr. burter, beurter.
bye, 32/1092, sb. baste.
I-fast, 58/2000, fixed.
ilkadele, 58/2016, every part. O.E.
ilke, 9/281, adj. same. O.E. ylca.
inowe, 25/854, adv. enougb. O.E.
isbente, 66/2286, pp. destroyed.
istoke, 56/1963, pp. sbut up, fast-
ened. From steken. O.L.G.
istonge, 16/533, pp. stung, pierced.
it, 25/845, vb. to bit. Icel. bitta.
iwis, 3/71, adv. certainly, indeed.
iwone, 11/358, adj. accustomed.
Japed, 75/2617, pp. mocked,
laughed at. O.Icel. gabba.
jouste, 57/1991, vb. to joust, fight.
Fr. j ouster.
Kele, 93/3258, vb. to keel, cool.
kind, 63/2196, sb. race, family,
kithe, 28/971, vb. to show, manifest.
kon, 66/2297, prs. pi. can.
kynde, 28/968, sb. nature, temper,
kynde, 2/42, adj. natural, inborn.
Lan, 15/516, pt. s. ceased, stopped.
late, 71/2460, pt. pi. let, caused,
ordered. O.E. let, l&ton.
launde, 2/59, sb. park, lawn,
laye, 77/2694, sb. lea, field. O.E.
leak Of. Water- Zoo.
laye, 28/951, sb. law. O.E. lagu.
layne, 16/538, pt. pi. lay. O.E.
lefe, 23/763, vb. leave, abandon,
forsake. O.E. lfau.
lefe-long, 24/832, adj. long, tedious,
legee^, 23/775, leagues. Fr. lieue.
O.Fr. legue. Lat. leuca.
leke, 50/1726, sb. leek. O.E. Mac.
lele, 33/1129, adj. leal, loyal. Fr.
longer, 72/2500, compar. longer,
lere, 66/2289, sb. countenance,
complexion. O.E. hleor.
lere, 74/2569, vb. to teach,
lered, 58/2005, pp. learned,
lerne, 33/1141, vb. to teach,
lese, 49/1683, vb. to loose. O.E.
lette, 17/585, vb. leave off; 74/2610,
to put a stop to, hinder, tarry.
leve, 23/794, vb. leave. O.E.
l&fan; 30/1045, omit, neglect,
leve, 19/651, vb. live, remain.
leven, 31/1050, vb. believe. O.E.
lowdo, 75/2601, si. laymen, un-
learned. O.E. lie wed.
light, 26/905, adj. active, nimble.
light, 33/1125, pp. alighted. O.E.
lithe, 81/1778, sb. limb, member.
logges, 69/2399, sb. huts. Fr. loge.
longith, 28/951, prs. s. belongeth,
loute, 72/2513, vb. to stoop, bow
down. O.E. lutan.
lowly, 70/2454, adv. low, not loud.
lurdeynes, 76/2651, sb. lurdan,
lout. Fr. lourdin.
lym, 59/2045, sb. limb.
lyued, 66/1261, pt. pi. lived.
Magre, 42/1442, prep, in spite of.
maistryes, 89/3117, sb. pi. mastery,
proof of skill, combat.
manly, 29/989, adj. brave.
mayne, 16/528, sb. main, strength.
me, 9/287, sb. men, people, one.
meche, 6/179, adj. much. O.E.
mede, 31/1054, sb. meadow. O.E.
mede, 37/1289. sb. meed, pay.
medel, 73/2540, vb. meddle. O.Fr.
men, 4/115, sb. men, people, one.
menske, 28/972, sb. manliness,
honour. O.E. mennisc.
mente, 51/1784, vb. to aim at, to
intend to go. O.E. myntan.
See note to 1. 1604.
mervaylyth, 88/3066, prs. s. mar-
vels, wonders. Of. Fr. mer-
mete, 47/1633, sb. food, repast.
meyne, 7/219, sb. host, company,
retinue. O.Fr. maisniee.
mikille, 30/1016, adj. many. O.E.
moche, 15/505, adj. much.
mode, 29/1009, sb. mind, temper,
courage. O E. mod.
mooldo, 5/136, sb. earth, worth.
moone, 28/944, sb. moan, com-
plaint. Of. O.E. majriaii.
more, 23/777, delay. See note to 1.
more, 29/1005, sb. moor, Maurian.
mot, 19/650, vb. may.
myghty, 56/1927, adj. See the
myrke, 45/1541, adj. dark. O.E.
Natheless, 15/506, adv. neverthe-
nather, 36/1232, adj. nother.
ner, 13/416, conj. nor.
nere, 22/756, adv. near.
nerehond, 86/2998, adv. almost.
noght, 43/1497, adv. not.
noght, 78/2712, sb. nothing.
none, 32/1114, sb. noon.
nones, 3/74, sb. nonce, occasion.
nothinge, 6/175, not at all.
nothir, 8/267, conj. neither.
nought for than, 43/1483, never-
nyl, 17/585, prs. s. will not. O.E.
Of, 32/1088, prp. on account of.
oght, 78/2713, sb. aught.
onarmede, 14/464, unarmed.
onnej^e, 89/3105, adv. scarcely.
onworthily, 49/1634, adv. unuso-
orders, 59/2036. See the note.
ore, 72/2512, sb. mercy, favour.
orfrays, 83/2888, sb. gold embroid-
ery. Lat. Aurifrisum.
overlede, 72/2502, vb. to domineer
over, to oppress.
Parelles, 55/1917, sb. pi. perils.
paynym, 16/539, sb. pagan,
pellure, 83/2887, sb. fur. O.Fr.
pight, 34/1158, pp. pitched, fixed,
pinne, 88/3077, vb. to torment.
playn, 6/177, vb. to complain,
plete, 33/1151, vb. plead, prattle.
Prom Fr. plot, plaid,
plight, 26/889, prs. s. promise,
poleyne, 6/176, sb. pulty-pieces,
praye, 16/550, sb. press, crowd,
prees, 40/1399, sb. crowd, struggle.
preest, 34/1169, adj. ready. Fr.
prik, 81/2831, vb. to spur a horse,
prikke, 65/2260, sb. a piece of wood
in the centre of the target. See
Halli well's Diction, s. v. preke.
prove, 6/183, vb. to try.
prowe, 51/1766, sb. profit, advan-
tage, honour. Fr. prou.
pryinsauns, 28/965 (?). See the
Quod, 32/1095, prt. a. quoth.
qwelle, 75/2614, vb. to kill. O.E.
qwere, 17/566, sb. quire, choir-
qweynte, 3/74, adj. excellent, ele-
gant. O.Fr. coint. Lat. cogni-
qwike, 58/2001, adj. alive, burning.
qwite, 16/520, vb. to requite, to
Racches, 2/56, sb. setting dogs,
rafe, 25/866, vb. to rave. O.Fr.
raver. Span, rabiar. Lat. ra-
ras, 39/1349, sb. instant, occasion.
See the note. 19/645, hurry,
rase, 23/774, sb. rush, channel of
raught, 46/1605, prt. s. reached,
aimed at, struck. O.E. r&hte.
rede, 85/2980, sb. counsel, advice.
rees, 49/1693, sb. time, occasion.
rehete, 59/2035, vb. to cheer.
rekyneth, 57/1982, prs. s. reckons,
releve, 7/219, vb. to rally.
renew, 33/1126, vb. to tie. Fr.
renew, 63/2200, vb. to renovate, to
resyn, 16/534, prs. pi. rise.
rew, 89/3105, sb. row, order. O.E.
roght, 54/1878, /rt. ^.recked, cared.
roial, 20/686, 51/1765, adj. exqui-
site, distinguished ; 71/2483, de-
lightful. Of. 1. 2247.
rome, 14/484, vb. to walk about.
See Stratmann, s. v. ramen, p.
romine, 26/876, sb. room, space.
rowte, 2/54, sb. company, host.
rowte, 60/2073, vb. to assemble in
a company, to throng, to rally.
ruly, 47/1624, adj. rueful. O.E.
ryme, 10/339, vb. to cry out, to
Saile, 12/385, vb. to assail.
same, all in s., 56/1938, alto-
sare, 21/706, adv. sorely, sadly.
saule, 66/2310. See the note.
saute, 18/619, sb. assault.
saye, 58/1998, pt. pi. saw. O.E.
scole, 33/1141, vb. style, manner.
sede, 7/235, sb. seed.
seke, 32/1116, adj. sick.
semely, 2/39, adj. seemly, comely,
sendelle, 4/129, sb. a kind of rich
set, 49/1717, vb. to consider, esti-
sete, 3/62, sb. a seat.
sewes, 76/2654, sb. juices, delica-
cies. O.E. seaw.
seyne, 14/472, vb. to speak.
shente, 1/23, pp. destroyed.
shifte, 78/2704, vb. to divide, to
share. O.E. sciftan.
shonde, 64/2222, sb. disgrace, igno-
miny. O.E. sceand.
shoon, 40/1381, sb. shoes. O.E.
shope him, 2/50, pt. s. got himself
ready to, arrayed himself.
shoure, 15/509, sb. fight.
shrew, 72/2518, vb. to curse.
shrewes, 76/2652, sb. wicked
sikerlye, 62/2172, adv. surely.
sith, 47/1632, conj. since.
sithe, 47/1619, sb. pi. times. O.E.
skaped, 59/2043, pt. s. escaped.
skath, 47/1645, sb. loss, damage,
ruin. Cf. O.E. sceafcan.
skomfited, 38/1320, pp. discomfited.
skulkyng, 76/2651, prs. p. lurking,
breaking forth from a hiding
sinerte, 38/1309, adj. smart, pun-
smertly, 41/1419, adv. smartly, at
socoure, 15/507, sb. succour, assist-
soghten, 40/1372, pt. pi. moved on ;
rode. See the note.
solas, 20/675, sb. relief, recreation,
pleasure. O.Fr. solaz. Lat.
somer, 77/2702, sb. a sumpter
horse. Fr. sommier. Cf. Diez,
Etym. Diet. I., p. 364, s. v. sal-
sonde, 61/2134, sb. message, order.
sore, 2/47, adv. very much, eagerly.
sore, 33/1138, adv. sadly.
sowdeoures, 21/727, sb. soldiers,
hirelings. Lat. solidarius. Cf.
Fr. soudard, soudoye.
spede, 70/2433, vb. thrive.
spille, 36/1226, vb. to destroy.
stenyed, 24/825, pt. s. shook, as-
steven, 65/2258, sb. voice. O.E.
stondart, 78/2717, sb. standard-
bearer. Fr. etendard.
store, 23/768, sb. provision.
store, 92/3210, sb. stock, preserva-
stoure, 7/212, sb. battle, tumult.
stoute, 53/1825, adj. proud, boast-
stronde, 2/53, sb. strand, shore.
stroyeth, 5/159, prs. s. destroyeth.
stynte, 52/1804, pt. pi. stopped.
sue, 46/1601, vb. to follow. Fr.
sware, 13/428, adj. heavy.
swyth, 47/1621, adv. quick, fast.
Tan, 74/2581, pp. taken.
tene, 30/1032, sb. grief, anger, in-
sult, injury. O.E. teona.
tene, 83/2902, vb. to vex, to wax
wroth. O.E. tynan.
teyde, 48/1648, pp. tied.
tha, 76/2639. See the note.
thane, 51/1756, than that.
then, 46/1593, vb. to prosper.
thikke, 30/1027, adj. numerous,
threste, 34/1170, vb. to thrust,
thrifte, 78/2706, sb. thriving, pros-
perity, success. O.Icel. prift.
tho, 59/2052, pron. those, them.
tho, 59/2063, art. the, those.
tho, 2/53, adv. then. O.E. *a.
thronge, 41/1401, sb. thrusts,
throwing of arrows.
tobrasto, 34/1108, pt.pl. burst, or
broke in pieces. O.E. (tobaerst)
tohewe, 89/3103, pp. hewn to
pieces. O.E. to-heawen.
tokenyng, 8/242, sb. news, intelli-
totreden, 40/1382, pp. crushed,
trappe, 52/1802, vb. to go. Of. Ger.
trippeln, E. trip, O.Fr. treper.
tredde, 58/1999, sb. thread. O.E.
trende, 27/940, pp. turned, vaulted,
troted, 55/1923, pt. pi. treated,
pressed. FT. traiter.
trewe, 3/67, adj. a thorough master
of, a trustworthy interpreter of.
treyumple, 27/913 (?)
trowe, 8/246, vb. to believe,
trusse, 49/1707, vb. to pack off, to
trwes, 31/1060, sb. truce,
tyte, 6/181, adj. soon, quickly,
Uimeth, 5/160, adv. scarcely.
Vere, 28/965, sb. spring,
vertue, 66/2312, sb. magic, power,
viage, 82/2846, sb. voyage, journey,
victory, 92/3227, sb. booty,
voydance, 32/1106, sb. relinquish-
voyde, 51/1768, vb. to give up,
Wage, 18/590, vb. to hire, pay.
ware, 7/204, adj. aware.
waste, 8/246, in = in vain.
wende, 92/3214, vb. to turn, go.
wende, 85/2958, pt. s. thought,
wene, 31/1061, vb. to think.
were, 7/210, vb. to defend, to pro-
tect, to fight. O.E. werian.
werre, 16/541, sb. war.
wory, 3/60, adj. weary, fatigued,
wessh, 54/1871, pt. pi. washed,
wete, 94/3270, vb. to know,
what, 47/1623, pron. = who.
wine, 76/2650, sb. a kind of axe.
O.E. wifel, " bipennis."
wight, 27/933, adj. nimble, active.
Sw. vig, active,
wirch, 5/148, vb. to 'work, to do.
wiste, 48/1662, pt. s. knew,
wode, 9/276, adj. mad, furious,
wode- wroth, 90/3130, adj. madly
angry. O.E. wod and wrafc.
wone, 60/2093, sb. lot, quantity.
worche, 59/2046, vb. to work, to
do. O.E. wyrcan.
worthed up, 34/1163, pt. s. got up,
wote, 2/36, prs. s. know. O.E.
wotist, 61/2123, prs. s. knowest.
wrake, 70/2446, sb. persecution,
mischief, destruction. O.E.
wreke, 88/3058, pp. wreaked, re-
wrong, 73/2557, pt. s. pressed,
forced his way, hurried off. O.E.
wyne, 9/275, vb. get, attain. O.E.
Yare, 19/639, adj. ready. O.E.
yates, 66/2285, sb. gates. O.E.
yede, 66/2311, pt. s. went. O.E.
yolde, 12/403, vb. yield. O.E.
gieldan, pp. golden
yolowe, 29/1005, adj. yellow. O.E.
pilke, 76/2644, pron. such, yon.
fpon, 4/108, art. the. O.E. J>one.
INDEX OF NAMES.
AGREMARE, Agremour or Egre-
mour, a town in Spain situated
on the rivor Flagot. The soudan
is holding his court there (1. 33),
when he hears of the injuries
done to his subjects by the
Eomans. Having destroyed
Eome, he returns to Agremor
(1. 672) [not to Morimonde, as
in the Destruction, 1. 1351, and
in Fierabras, 1. 27]. At Agremor
the twelve peers are imprisoned
and besieged. Syr Ferumbras
reads Fyremoygne, Egremoun,
ALAGOLOFUR, a Saracen giant,
warden of the bridge of Man-
trible ; 11. 2135, 2881, 2149, 2175,
2801, 3053. In Syr Ferumbras,
1. 3831, etc., he is called Agola-
fre. In the French poem of
Fierabras we find Agolafre and
ALCARON, 1. 2762, a Saracen deity ;
cl note to 1. 2271.
ALEROYSE, 1. 1699, one of the
twelve peers ; cf. note to 1. 884.
ALISAUNDRE. Ferumbras is called
King of Alisaundre, 11. 510, 984.
Cf. Destr. 71, 1237, 1315. Fiera-
bras, 50, 66, 538, etc. Ashmole
Ferumbras, 53, 88, etc.
APPOLYN, one of the Mahometan
deities. See note to 1. 86.
ARABYE, 1. 3097. Cf. Destr. 75 ;
Fierabras, 3160, 4096.
ASCALON. Laban's birthplace, 1.
100, and subject to him. This
name does not occur in any
ASCAROT, 1. 2762, a Mahometan
god. Occurring in none of the
ASCOPARS, see note to 1. 495.
ASKALOUS, 1. 497.
ASSAYNES, 1. 497.
AssiENS, 11. 1039, 2085. In this
poem only the last three nations
are mentioned as being included
among Laban's subjects.
ASSYE, 1. 102, 123,' 1000. See
note to 1. 1000.
ASTRAGOT, or ESTRAGOT, a Saracen
giant who kills Sabaris, 11. 346,
352. He is slain by the portcullis
let down by the Eomans, 1. 432.
He was husband to Barrock, the
giantess of the bridge of Man-
trible, 11. 3944, 4902. Cf. Destr.
1090. Not in Fierabras nor in
the Ashmolean version. See
note to 1. 346.
AUFRIKE, 11. 102, 114. Aufri-
canes, 1. 257, part of the soudan's
dominions. Cf. Syr Fer umbras ,
1. 5465, Destr. 76, Fierabras,
BABILON, see note to 1. 69 ; cf.
Destr. 78, 204, 85; Fierabras, 51;
Syr Fer. 53.
BALDESEYNES, 501, 871. Occur-
ring in no other version; cf.
besides Martin's note to Kudrun,
161, 2, and perhaps Fierabras,
2873, 4721 Balegue = Balaguer
(Ballegarium, Valaguaria) near
Lerida in Spain.
BARBARYE, 1. 1001, mentioned
only in this poem.
BARROK, 11. 2939, 2950, 3022, a
giantess, wife to Astragot, slain
by Charles. See note to 1. 2939.
BELMORE, does not occur in the
other versions; see note to 1.
BELSABUB, 1. 357, occurs only in
BERNARD OF SPRTJWSE (? Prussia) ;
1715, one of the twelve knights.
See Introduction, p. xxvii.
BOLOYNE, 3238. Charles presents
INDEX OF NAMES.
the nails to that place. See note
to 1. 3236, and cf. Ficrabras, 1.
BRETOMAYN, Laban's gaoler at
Agremor, 11. 1533, 1591, slain by
Floripas, 1. 1606. This name is
spelt 'Brutamont' in Fierulmis,
f Brytamoun ' in Syr Fer umbras.
It is not to be met with in the
BROULAND, chief counsellor to
Laban. See note on 1. 1743.
BUYER OF BRYTAYN, of Moun-
tez; see note to 1. 1723.
BRYER OF POYLE, a Roman knight,
slain by Ferurabras ; see note to
BULGARE, 1. 1002. Occurring in
no other poem.
CASSAUNDRE, 11. 986, 512, town
belonging to Lukafer. This
name is not found in the other
CHARLES, Charlemayne, the French
CirAUNDER, 1. 123, a town in Asia;
only mentioned here. See note
to 1. 1000.
COSDROYE escorts a convoy des-
tined for the soudan ; he is slain
by Eoland ; cf. note to 1. 2695.
CRAMADAS, a Saracen bishop, 11.
2775, 2788. Not found in the
CURRAUNTES, the bridge near
Mantrible, 1. 2866. This name
occurs only in this poem.
DASABERBE, 1. 1707, (?) mentioned
DENYS, 11. 27, 61, etc. Occurring
in all versions.
DURNEDALE, Eoland's sword; see
note to 1. 875.
ESPIARD, 1. Ill, Laban's messen-
ger ; cf. note to 1. 2145.
ETHIOPES, subject to Laban. See
note to 1. 257.
EUROPE. 1. 1002. Mentioned only
in this poem.
FERUMBRAS, see note to 1. 93.
FLAGOT, the river on which the
city of Mantrible with its famous
bridge is situated, cf. 11. 2559,
2798, 2855, etc., and Fierabrc.s,
11. 7348, 4886, etc. When the
twelve peers besieged in Agre-
mar send Richard of Normandy
to Charlemagne to ask his aid,
Richard is said to have started
in the direction of Mantrible,
1. 2559 ; but finding the bridge
blocked up and guarded, 1. 2799,
he is obliged to swim across the
water, ' Flagot the flode,' 1. 2804.
Charlemagne being informed of
the distress of his peers, starts
towards Mantrible, 1. 2849, and
having first taken it and left
Richard there with two hundred
knights, 1. 3044, he continues his
inarch against the soudan at
Agremar, 1. 3047. Whence it is
clear that Agremar cannot be
situated on the river Flagot, as
is stated in 1. 34 ; a mistake
evidently owing to an oversight
on the part of the poet. Cf.
besides, note to 1. 1723.
FLOREYN OF ROME, name given
to Ferumbras after his baptism ;
see note to 1. 1486.
FLORIP, Florypas; see note to 1.
614. In the Ashmoleaii ver-
sions we find Floryppe, a spelling
which does not occur in any of
the French poems. But once
we find Floripes in Fierabros, 1.
FOCARD, 1. 2900, one of the Chris
tian knights who struck at the
bridge-keeper of Mantrible when
he refused to let them pass. The
name occurs only in this poem.
FOLK BALIANT, 1. 1695, one of the
twelve peers. Only found in
FORTIBRAUNCE, 1. 422, one of the
soudan's engineers. Only oc-
curring in this poem.
FRATJNCE. Charles is called king
of dowse Fraunce, cf. Fierabras,
2103; Syr Ferumbms,r2G9 : This
phrase does not occur in the
INDEX OF NAMES.
FREMOUNDE, a saint; see note to
FIUGE, 1. 1000; Frigys, 1. 1040.
Part of the soudan's dominions,
not mentioned in the other ver-
GALLOPES, 1. 251, mentioned only
in this poem.
GrA3E, a town in Spain, where
Charlemagne lands his troops.
The name is found only in this
poem (in rhyme), 1. 772.
GENELYN, a French knight, noto-
rious for his treachery. He
advised Charles to leave Spain
and to return home, urging that
the twelve peers must be dead at
Agremor, since no news arrived
from them, 1. 2820. When in
assaulting Mantrible he saw
Charles shut in in the city, he
treacherously proclaimed the
king to be dead, and ordered the
French to return to France,
where he hoped to be crowned
king. But he was rebuked by
Ferumbras (11. 2970-2991). For
his treason he is hanged and
drawn at Montfaucon in Paris
GENERYSE, 11. 1139, 1239, is the
name Oliver gives himself when
asked by Ferumbras. The
French Fierabras and the Ash-
mole Ferumbras have Garin in-
GY OF BOURGOYNE, see note to 11.
GYNDARD, 1. 543, a Eoman senator
who kills ten Saracens. He is
slain by Lukafer. Occurring
only in this poem.
HUBERT, 1. 518, a Eoman knight,
slain by Ferumbras. Not men-
tioned in the other versions.
IFFREZ, a Eoman senator who
advises to send to Charles for
help. See note to 1. 165.
INDE, 1. 999. Not mentioned in
the other poems. Cf. note to 1.
ISRES, 625, 641, the chief porter of
Eome, who treacherously de-
livers tho keys to the Saracens.
See note to 1. 625.
JUBYTER, 11. 2254, 2762, a Saracen
god, mentioned only in this
LABAN, see note to 1. 29.
LOWES, occurring in the Sowdati
a,ud. the Destruction, but not men-
tioned in the other versions. See
note to 1. 24.
LUKAFER OF BALDAS, see note to
1. 113. Once, 1. 236, this name
is spelt Lukefere.
MACEDOYNE, 1. 1002. Occurring
only in this poem.
MAHOUND, see note to 1. 86.
MAPYN, 1. 2326, introduces him-
self into the bed-chamber of
Floripas to steal the fatal girdle.
In the French poem, 1. 3046, he
is called Maubrun d' Agreinolee ;
in the Ashmolean version Mau-
byn of Egremolee, 1. 2385. Cf.
Introduction, pp. xx, xxx, xxxi.
MARAGONDE, the name of Flori-
pas's governess, 1. 1563. Spelt
Morabunde in the French
poem. See Introduction, pp.
MARIE, 11. 917, 2390 ; cf. Destr. 11.
374, 564 ; Fierabras, 11. 285, 815 ;
Syr Ferumbras, 11. 5177, 5451.
MARSEDAG, king of Barbarye, oc-
curs only in this poem. See note
to 1. 2247.
MAUNTRIBLE, a town in Spain on
the river Flagot (see above) with
a bridge ; cf. also Destr. 211, and
Fierabras, 1867, etc.
MAVON, 11. 278, 422, 2230, Laban's
engineer; spelt Mabon in the
Destr. 11. 908, 941, and in Fiera-
bras, 1. 3735. The name does
not occur in the Ashrnolo MS.
MIRON OF BRABANE, one of the
twelve peers, occurring only in
this poem, 1. 1703.
MONTFAWCON, 1. 3253. Not found
in the other versions.
INDEX OP NAMES.
MOUNPELERS, after having con-
quered the soudan, Charlemagne
sails from Spain to Mounpeler,
1. 3228. The name does not
occur in the Fierabras, where
the king returns to France in an
eight days' journey (11. 6164
6187). Cf. Destr. 11. 250, 286.
MOWNJOYE, see note to 1. 868, and
cf. the Song of Roland, 128/746.
NEYMES or BAVERE, one of the
twelve peers, see note to 1. 836.
NUBENS, 1. 873, NUBYE, 1. 1001, a
people subject to the soudan.
OGER DANOYS, one of the twelve
peers, see note to 1. 836.
OLIBORN, 1. 99, the soudan's chan-
cellor ; only found in this poem.
OLYVER, one of the twelve peers ;
see note to 1. 1250.
PARIS, 1. 917 ; see note to 1. 3254.
PERSAGYN, a king of Italy, and
uncle to Ferumbras, slain by
Oliver, L 1259. In the Destr. \.
162, we find one Parsagon men-
tioned among: the peers of the
soudan's empire. See note to 1.
PERSE, 1. 2888, cf. Destr. 11. 77,
421. Fierabras, 1640, 1713.
SEINT PETER, 11. 161, 480, etc.,
the saint ; cf. Fierabras, 1. 1261 ;
Syr Ferumbras, 1. 3756 ; Destr. 1.
CEINT PETER, 1. 453, the cathedral ;
cf. Fierabras, 1. 57; Destr. 1.
SEINT POUL, 11. 163, 3269, the
saint; cf. Syr Ferumbras, 1.
3756 ; not mentioned in the other
POYLE, 1. 514, ? Apulia; found
only in this poem ; cf. note to 1.
QWYNTYN, 1. 1298, a saint by whom
Ferumbras swears ; see note to
BICHARD OF NORMANDY, see notes
to 11. 2535, 2795, 3044.
EOMAYNE, 1. 77, inhabitant of
EOME, 1. 17.
KOULAND, see note to 11. 1499,
SATIIANAS, 1. 2777, a Saracen god.
SAVARIS, 1. 171, a duke of Rome
who leads the Eoman troops
against the Saracens. He is
slain by Estragot (1. 346). He
also occurs in the Destr. de Home.
In the French Fierabras appears
a French knight Savaris, 1.
SORTYBRAUNCE, the chief coun-
cillor of the soudan.
SPAYN, 1. 717, belonging to the
soudan's dominions. It is the
scene of the principal action
narrated in this poem, as indeed
the only part where the scene is
laid elsewhere is that describing
the destruction of Borne.
SYMON, a saint by whom Charles
swears, 1. 1713.
TAMPER, a name peculiar to this
poem. He erects a gallows be-
fore Agremore castle to hang
Guy, 1. 2641.
TERMAGANT, 1. 137, a Saracen
deity; cf. note to 1. 86. Spelt
Ternagant in Syr Ferumbras,
Tervagant in the French Fiera-
TERY LARDENEYS, one of the
twelve peers; see note to 1. 1691.
TURKES, 1. 874, cf. Fierabras, 128,
1641, 3767. Syr Ferumbras, 5433,
TURPYN, the French bishop who
baptizes Ferumbras, 1. 1475.
This name does not occur in the
VENYS, subject to Laban ; see note
to 1. 1000. Mentioned only in
KICHAUU fLAV & SONS, LIMITED, LONDON <fc BUNUAY.